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Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of a Variable Displacement Vane Pump for High Performance IC Engine Lubrication: Part 2 – Lumped Parameters Numerical Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-1064
In this paper a detailed analysis focused on lumped parameters numerical modeling of a variable displacement vane pump for high speed internal combustion engine lubrication is presented and discussed. This particular volumetric unit is characterized by very extreme performance, both in terms of rotational speed, delivery pressure and displacement variation. First of all, a comprehensive description of the simulation environment properly tailored for the numerical modeling of the vane pump operation is introduced and all its geometric, kinematic and fluid-dynamic characteristics are described in depth. Then, the results coming from an exhaustive experimental campaign have been compared with simulations, finding a general good accordance that demonstrates the reliability of this numerical approach.
Technical Paper

Research on Extended Expansion General-Purpose Engine - A Numerical Approach to Reduce Vibration -

2009-04-20
2009-01-1066
Research has been conducted on an extended expansion engine using a multiple linkage system to increase the thermal efficiency of general-purpose engines. Previously reported engine increased mode fuel economy by 12.9%, while generated 1.93 times the summation of inertia compared to a conventional engine with the same output power. The newly-proposed multiple linkage system operates through a longer stroke term at a crank angle of 191.6°, so both of the piston speed and acceleration become lower. The summation of inertia in the newly-proposed multiple linkage system was decreased by 46.3% compared to that of the previous multiple linkage system.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Microwave Plasma Combustion Engine (Part II: Engine Performance of Plasma Combustion Engine)

2009-04-20
2009-01-1049
The objective of this study was to develop an innovative microwave-induced plasma ignition system to improve the fuel economy of a current engine and achieve a higher efficiency without any configuration modifications. A new plasma generation technique was proposed for a stable and intense ignition source. A microwave plasma combustion system was developed consisting of a spark plug, microwave transfer system, and control system. A magnetron, like that found in a microwave oven, was used as a microwave oscillator. The spark plug had a microwave antenna inside that generated plasma in the engine cylinders. The microwave transfer system transmitted microwave power from the oscillator to the antenna. Combustion experiments were performed using a single-cylinder research engine. The microwave plasma expanded the range of lean operating conditions. The single-cylinder engine had an indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 275 kPa at an engine speed of 2000 rpm.
Technical Paper

The New High-Performance V6 Gasoline Turbocharged Engine from NISSAN

2009-04-20
2009-01-1067
It can be said that super sports car has a mission to drive the evolution of cars with optimizing the balance between power and environmental performances and pursuing the ultimate driving performance. Nissan has therefore developed the brand new V6 gasoline twin-turbocharged engine for a new generation of super sports cars. To achieve high environmental as well as high dynamic performance, the V6-cylinder layout was selected for its compact size and lightweight while the twin-turbocharged design was aiming for downsizing. All engine parts were designed to achieve high efficiency, as for example, the plasma-sprayed coating of the bore which improves greatly the cooling performance, or the super-heat resistant steel used for the turbocharger, which improves combustion efficiency. Thanks to this technological advance, top-level properties could be attained for sports cars in terms of fuel economy and emissions.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Microwave Plasma Combustion Engine (Part I: Concept of Plasma Combustion and Plasma Generation Technique)

2009-04-20
2009-01-1050
This study aims to develop innovative plasma combustion system to improve fuel economy and achieve higher efficiency without any modification of current engine configuration. A new plasma generation technique, that used a combination of spark discharge and microwave, was proposed. This technique was applied to gasoline engine as an ignition source, which was intensive and stable even in lean condition. In this technique, firstly, small plasma source was generated by spark discharge. Secondly, microwave was radiated to the plasma source to expand the plasma. The microwave power was absorbed by the plasma source and large non-thermal plasma was formed. In non-thermal plasma, the electron temperature was high and the gas temperature was low. Then many OH radicals were generated in the plasma. The frequency of the microwave was 2.45 GHz because we used a magnetron for microwave oven. Magnetrons for microwave oven were high efficiency and reasonable.
Technical Paper

A Solution to Fuel Vaporization Problem in a Power Nozzle

2009-04-20
2009-01-1051
A power nozzle is a fuel injection actuator in which fuel is instantly compressed and then discharged by a solenoid piston pump with nozzle. Fuel vaporization inside the power nozzles is a challenging issue. This paper presents an effective solution to the fuel vaporization problem in the power nozzle. An applied physical process, fluid boundary layer pumping (FBLP), is found in this study. FBLP can result in fuel circulation within the fuel line of the power nozzle, which on one hand brings heat out of the power nozzle, and on the other hand blocks vapor from entering the piston pump.
Technical Paper

Development of a Friction Optimized Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1052
Evolving emissions legislation and concerns for diminishing fuel reserves continue to prompt the automotive industry to seek improvements in engine operation. The application of advanced combustion and system-based concepts is being studied in detail. However, it is believed prudent to first consider the optimization of the friction of the engine, to allow a more cost effective CO2 and fuel consumption reduction policy. MAHLE has developed an optimised friction engine to demonstrate the potential fuel consumption gains available to engine manufacturers and designers. The baseline 2.0 litre turbocharged, direct injection gasoline engine was modified to suit the application of new friction optimized components. This included piston, ring pack, connecting rod, crankshaft bearings, lubrication system, valvetrain and cooling system. A discussion of the design changes, including analysis results, is made. Motored rig and fired engine test results are presented to show the individual gains.
Journal Article

Challenges for Increased Efficiency through Gasoline Engine Downsizing

2009-04-20
2009-01-1053
In order to achieve the required future CO2 reduction targets, significant further development of both gasoline and diesel engines is required. One of the main methods to achieve this with the gasoline engine in the short to medium term is through the application of engine downsizing, which has resulted in numerous downsized engines already being brought to production. It is, however, considered that there is still significant further CO2 reduction potential through continued development of this technology. This paper considers the future development of gasoline engine downsizing in the short to medium term and the various technologies that can be applied to further increase the efficiency of operation. As such this paper covers, among other areas, fundamental engine layout and design, alternative boosting systems, methods of increasing part load efficiency and vehicle modelling, and uses analysis tools and engine test results to show the benefits achievable.
Technical Paper

A Study of Lead-free Al-Zn-Si Alloy Bearing with Overlay for Recent Automotive Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1054
Recently, a lead-free Al-Sn-Si alloy bearing with metallic overlay has started to be used for a portion of automotive engines. This bearing has good anti-seizure and excellent running-in properties, and is an environmentally friendly alternative to the current copper-lead alloy with lead based overlay in accordance with the ELV regulation for the removal of lead from bearings. But automotive engines have been required to exhibit higher performance in order to enhance their commercial power, which tends to require the engine bearing to perform under higher temperature due to higher specific load on the bearing and higher rotational speed of the crankshaft. It is clear that the current lead-free aluminum alloy bearing is not satisfactory with respect to fatigue strength in some cases, and requires higher strength under the higher temperature conditions.
Technical Paper

Improving Flow Tolerances of Mass Produced Carburetors through Pilot System Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-1055
Carburetors are widely used for two wheeler applications in India as well as countries like Taiwan, Indonesia and China. These carburetors are characterized by simple design and low cost. As the emission norms are becoming more and more stringent, matching the carburetors for vehicle application becomes very challenging. Earlier it was widely believed that, for meeting the Euro-3 regulations, even two wheelers with small engine capacity had to employ electronic fuel injection. However, many vehicle manufacturers have successfully developed carburetors for meeting Euro-3 norms by employing catalytic converters without any electronic control. This development has been essentially motivated by the need for low cost. Flow variation is inherent in mass produced carburetors because there are many parts, which contribute to the air-fuel ratio delivered by the carburetor. Carburetors with the mixture control pilot systems were mass-produced and compared for results with air control system.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cold Start Capability of a Briggs and Stratton Engine Using Jet A Fuel and Microwave Plasma Ignition

2009-04-20
2009-01-1057
There is a growing interest in improving engine versatility through the capacity to run on more than one fuel. To aid in this effort, the research presented in this paper investigated a novel system using microwave plasma ignition designed with the goal of allowing standard gasoline engines to run on non-standard fuels. The fuel used was Jet A. The test engine was a Briggs and Stratton single cylinder engine outfitted with an aftermarket fuel injection system and the microwave plasma ignition system. The tests performed were to determine the cold-start temperature limit, the lowest temperature at which the engine could be repeatedly started, using microwave plasma ignition with a conventional spark plug as a reference. A detailed system outline is presented, as well as results and conclusions. Recommendations for further research are also suggested.
Technical Paper

Development of Double-Layered Three-Way Catalysts

2009-04-20
2009-01-1081
It is critical to develop high performance three-way catalysts to meet increasing regulations around the world. It was found that a double-layered catalyst loaded with Pt and Rh suppresses Pt-Rh alloying, thereby improving catalytic performance. A double-layered catalyst has the effect of decreasing OSC performance, but this has been overcome by a newly developed Rh support and suppressed Pt grain growth. The developed catalyst is capable of lowering the amount of PGM required by approximately 40%.
Journal Article

Treatment of Vehicle Emissions from the Combustion of E85 and Gasoline with Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Traps

2009-04-20
2009-01-1080
Ethanol has been gaining attention as a partial substitute in North American pump gasoline in amounts up to 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, or what is commonly known as “E85”. The problems with E85 fuel for cold start emissions relative to gasoline fuel are the lower energy density and vapor pressure for combustion. Each contributes to excess E85 fuel injected during cold start for comparable combustion quality and drivability to gasoline. The excess emissions occur before the first three-way catalyst (TWC) converter is warmed-up and active for engine-out exhaust conversion. The treatment of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions from the combustion of E85 and gasoline was evaluated using several different zeolite based hydrocarbon (HC) traps coated with different precious metal loadings and ratios. These catalyzed HC traps were evaluated in a flow reactor and also on a gasoline Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) with experimental flexible fuel capability.
Technical Paper

Development of PGM Single Nano Catalyst Technology

2009-04-20
2009-01-1079
A newly developed three-way catalyst (TWC) has excellent thermal durability with an ultra low amount of platinum group metals (PGM). The performance of the new catalyst is similar to that of a conventional TWC but with only 1/10 of the typical PGM loading. In the conventional TWC, the PGM particles are simply deposited on the surface of the support material; the particles sinter during thermal aging, resulting in significant thermal deterioration. The new developed catalyst contains small nano-sized PGM particles with a unique microstructure and support materials. With this material, the PGM particles remain at the single nano size after high temperature aging.
Technical Paper

Study on New Characteristic CeO2-ZrO2 Based Material for Advanced TWC

2009-04-20
2009-01-1078
Performance improvements resulting from the adoption of a new type CeO2-ZrO2-based material were found using a two-brick three way catalyst (TWC) system. Compared to a conventional CeO2-ZrO2-based material, this new type CeO2-ZrO2 has both a larger oxygen storage capacity and a slower oxygen release rate. Such characteristics were confirmed by fundamental studies. Vehicle evaluations showed this material was most effective for hot NOx control when used in the rear catalyst, especially after fuel cuts. The improvement in NOx was thought to be caused by the increased oxygen storage capacity (OSC), which effectively stored excess oxygen during fuel cuts. As a result, the air-to-fuel ratio (A/F) surrounding the active sites could be kept at stoichiometry even if the engine control shifted to a lean setting.
Technical Paper

Characteristics and Effects of Ash Accumulation on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance: Rapidly Aged and Field Aged Results

2009-04-20
2009-01-1086
Ash, mostly from essential lubricant additives, affects diesel particulate filter (DPF) pressure-drop sensitivity and limits filter service life. It raises concern in the lubricant industry to properly specify new oils, and engine and aftertreatment system manufacturers have attempted to find ways to mitigate the problem. To address these issues, results of detailed measurements of ash characteristics in the DPF and their effects on filter performance are presented. In this study, a heavy-duty diesel engine was outfitted with a specially designed rapid lubricant degradation and aftertreatment ash loading system. Unlike previous studies, this system allows for the control of specific exhaust characteristics including ash emission rate, ash-to-particle ratio, ash composition, and exhaust temperature and flow rates independent of the engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Emissions of Chemical Species from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and the Effects of Modern Aftertreatment Technology

2009-04-20
2009-01-1084
A comparative analysis was made on the emissions from a 2004 and a 2007 heavy-duty diesel engine to determine how new engine and emissions technologies have affected the chemical compounds found in the exhaust gases. Representative samples were collected from a source dilution sampling system and analyzed for both criteria and unregulated gaseous and particulate emissions. Results have shown that the 2007 regulations compliant engine and emissions technology not only reduced the specifically regulated exhaust pollutants, but also significantly reduced the majority of unregulated chemical species. It is believed that these reductions were achieved through the use of engine optimization, aftertreatment system integration, and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filter Thermal Management Using Model-Based Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-1082
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are now considered as efficient solutions to reduce Diesel PM emissions. Concerned by environment, Renault will equip all serial production Diesel vehicles with this technology. The main issue for these devices is the periodical regeneration necessary to eliminate the accumulated soot. The challenging enhancement of the regeneration event can be achieved with a better regeneration temperature control. For this purpose, a controller based on a physical model is proposed to manage the DPF temperature during active regeneration. This paper describes the methodology which has been followed to design this controller. In a first step, a reduced physical model has been developed and validated with experimental data. In a second step, two model-based controllers have been studied: a robust LPV (Linear Parameter Varying) and a gain scheduling PID..Special attention has been paid to the simplification as far as possible of the controller tuning process.
Technical Paper

Regulated and NO2 Emissions from a Euro 4 Passenger Car with Catalysed DPFs

2009-04-20
2009-01-1083
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in European city street air have not decreased after year 2000 in spite of stringent Euro 3 and Euro 4 NOx limits for diesel passenger cars. NO2 emissions from modern diesel vehicles are caused by platinum catalysed Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) and platinum catalysed Diesel Particulate Filters (cDPF). The NO2 formed on DOC and cDPFs are used for passive soot regeneration but the excess of NO2 out of the filter is not controlled. A Euro 4 diesel passenger car equipped with a DOC and a palladium base metal cDPF was compared with DOC plus a platinum based cDPF using NEDC test cycle with both cold and hot start, FTP-75, and Artemis test cycles. Emissions of NO2 and NOx were measured online in the raw exhaust, and with standard bag sampling method. Relative to cold NEDC the NOx and NO2 levels increased with a warm engine.
Technical Paper

Study of Large OSC Materials (Ln2O2SO4) on the Basis of Sulfur Redox Reaction

2009-04-20
2009-01-1071
Three-way catalyst shows high performance under stoichiometric atmosphere. The CeO2-ZrO2 based materials (CZ) are added as a buffer of O2 concentration. To improve the catalyst performance the larger O2 storage capacity (OSC) are needed. Theoretically, the sulfur oxidation-reduction reaction moves oxygen 8 times larger than cerium. We focused on this phenomenon and synthesized Ln2O2SO4 as a new OSC material. The experimental result under model gas shows that the OSC of Ln2O2SO4 is 5 times lager than CZ.
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