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Journal Article

xD+1D Catalyst Simulation-A Numerical Study on the Impact of Pore Diffusion

This paper presents a numerical study on the impact of washcoat diffusion on the overall conversion performance of catalytic converters. A comprehensive transient 1D pore diffusion reaction model is embedded in state-of-the-art 1D and 3D catalytic converter models. The pore diffusion model is discussed with its model equations and the applied diffusive transport approaches are summarized. The diffusion reaction model is validated with the help of two available analytical solutions. The impact of basic washcoat characteristics such as pore diameters or thickness on overall conversion performance is investigated by selected 1D+1D calculations. This model is also used to highlight the impact of boundary layer transfer, pore diffusion and reaction on the overall converter conversion performance. The interaction of pore diffusion and flow non-uniformities is demonstrated by 3D+1D CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Thermal Management Simulation Method Integrated in the Development Process from Scratch to Prototype

In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Furthermore the increasing number of vehicle configurations leads to a high variability and degrees of freedom in possible system designs and the control thereof, which can only be handled by a comprehensive tool chain of vehicle system simulation and a generic control system architecture. The required model must comprise all relevant systems of the vehicle (control functionality, cooling system, lubrication system, engine, drive train, HV components etc.). For proper prediction with respect to energy consumption all interactions and interdependencies of those systems have to be taken into consideration, i.e. all energy fluxes (mechanical, hydraulically, electrical, thermal) have to be exchanged among the system boundaries accordingly.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sound Engineering by Modifying Intake / Exhaust Orifice Noise Using Simulation Software

Apart of other aspects, the interior sound of a passenger car brand has to meet customer expectations. For optimizing the sound of a passenger car, target sounds have first to be established via the operating range of the vehicle. For an effective sound engineering approach an objective description and evaluation of vehicle interior sound is beneficial. Such an objective description guarantees the effective and reproducible implementation of the required brand sound in the vehicle development process. In such a process it is necessary to reduce on the one hand annoying undesired noise aspects and to create on the other hand the relevant and necessary noise parameters to meet the target sounds head on.
Journal Article

Use of a Catalytic Stripper as an Alternative to the Original PMP Measurement Protocol

The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) developed an exhaust particle number measurement protocol that has been adopted by current light duty vehicle emission regulations in Europe. This includes thermal treatment of the exhaust aerosol to isolate solid particles only and a number counting device with a lower cutpoint of 23 nm to avoid measurement of smaller particles that may affect the repeatability of the measurement. In this paper, we examine a potential alternative to the PMP system, where the thermal treatment is replaced by a catalytic stripper (CS). This offers oxidation and not just evaporation of the volatile components. Alternative sampling systems, either fulfilling the PMP recommendations or utilizing a CS, have been explored in terms of their volatile particle removal efficiency. Tests have been conducted on diesel exhaust, diesel equipped with DPF and gasoline direct injection emissions.
Technical Paper

Tool Based Calibration with the OBDmanager

At the moment the documentation of failure inhibition matrices and the fault path management for different controller types and different vehicle projects are mainly maintained manually in individual Excel tables. This is not only time consuming but also gives a high potential for fault liability. In addition there is also no guarantee that the calibration of these failure inhibition matrices and its fault path really works. Conflicting aims between costs, time and fault liability require a new approach for the calibration, documentation and testing of failure inhibition matrices and the complete Diagnostic System Management (DSM) calibration. The standardization and harmonization of the Diagnostic System Management calibration for different calibration projects and derivates is the first step to reduce time and costs. Creating a master calibration for the conjoint fault paths and labels provides a significant reduction of efforts.
Technical Paper

The OBD System Development Database - a Solution for Knowledge Management and Tool Supported Control System Design and Calibration

The correct information about legal demands of the On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) system in a vehicle project is required throughout the entire development process. Usually, the main obstacle in succeeding is to provide the company's expertise of some few experts for all employees who work in OBD related projects. The paper describes the AVL solution for knowledge management and tool supported control system design and calibration: OBD System Development Database. The software enables the user to access the regulatory requirements for a specific application and legislation from past, present and future (proposed rule-making) point of view. Information concerning already available and stored monitoring concepts is linked to the requirements in order to re-use potentially suitable concepts and to enable an efficient knowledge exchange within the company.
Technical Paper

The Creation of a Car Interior Noise Quality Index for the Evaluation of Rattle Phenomena

Rattle noise produced in the vehicle interior due to broadband excitation by road irregularities is a major concern with respect to driving comfort, and therefore has become one of the most important topics of acoustic development in recent years. A quantification i.e. measurement of this rattle noise is of fundamental importance for systematic development work and production control. Common noise level measurements (dB, dBA, etc. ) do not represent the rattle character in the vehicle interior as revealed during initial investigations. To overcome this problem and to substitute the subjective assessment with a combination of measurable parameters, the psychoacoustic software AVL-EAR was applied to create an Interior Rattle Quality Index. Based on more than 40 different vehicles that have been subjectively assessed by approximately 70 test persons, the index was generated by means of multiple pair comparisons and statistics on measurement data.
Technical Paper

The 2-Step VCR Conrod System - Modular System for High Efficiency and Reduced CO2

In order to achieve future CO2 targets - in particular under real driving conditions - different powertrain technologies will have to be introduced. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the internal combustion engine. In addition to further optimization of the combustion processes and the reduction of mechanical losses in the thermal- and energetic systems, the introduction of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is probably the measure with the highest potential for fuel economy improvement. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The basic principle of the AVL VCR system described in this paper is a 2-stage variation of the conrod length and thus the Compression Ratio (CR).
Technical Paper

System Design Model for Parallel Hybrid Powertrains using Design of Experiments

The paper focuses on an optimization methodology, which uses Design of Experiments (DoE) methods to define component parameters of parallel hybrid powertrains such as number of gears, transmission spread, gear ratios, progression factor, electric motor power, electric motor nominal speed, battery voltage and cell capacity. Target is to find the optimal configuration based on specific customer targets (e.g. fuel consumption, performance targets). In the method developed here, the hybrid drive train configuration and the combustion engine are considered as fixed components. The introduced methodology is able to reduce development time and to increase output quality of the early system definition phase. The output parameters are used as a first hint for subsequently performed detailed component development. The methodology integrates existing software tools like AVL CRUISE [5] and AVL CAMEO [1].
Technical Paper

Sound Optimization for Downsized Engines

Today, the number of downsized engines with two or three cylinders is increasing due to an increase in fuel efficiency. However, downsized engines exhibit unbalanced interior sound in the range of their optimal engine speed, largely because of their dominant engine orders. In particular, the sound of two-cylinder engines yields half the perceived engine speed of an equivalent four-cylinder engine at the same engine speed. As a result when driving, the two-cylinder engine would be shifted to higher gears much later, diminishing the expected fuel savings. This contribution presents an active in-car sound generation system that makes a two-cylinder engine sound like the more familiar four-cylinder engine. This is done by active, load-dependent playback of signals extracted from the engine vibration through a shaker mounted on the firewall. A blind test with audio experts indicates a significant reduction of the engine speed when shifting to a higher gear.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Application of Lightweight Damping Sandwich Material for I.C. Engines

Making lighter engines is in the agenda of all OEMs in order to make their cars lighter and to reduce CO2 emission based on regulations. On the other hand, the noise regulations are getting more stringent and the customer impression of interior sounds is still an important aspect in vehicle development. Vehicle noise legislation has been revised numerous times since it was first established in February 1970. The latest revision in EU legislation introduces a revised test method which is used to enforce diminishing noise limits in three phases (EU Regulation No. 540/2014). Since 2016 the noise limit for passenger cars has been 72 dB(A). It will be reduced to 70 dB(A) in 2020 and to 68 dB(A) in 2024. These vehicle pass by noise limits cascade down to limitations on engine noise. New engine designs face a trade-off between a lightweight design and fulfilling the NVH targets. The conventional design updates are done by adding ribs and usually mass to the engine.
Journal Article

Simulation Methodology for Consideration of Injection System on Engine Noise Contribution

The target of the investigation is the particular influence of a fuel injection system and its components as a noise source in automotive engines. The applied methodology is demonstrated on an automotive Inline 4-cylinder Diesel engine using a common rail system. This methodology is targeted as an extension of a typical standard acoustic simulation approach for combustion engines. Such approaches basically use multi-body dynamic simulation with interacting FEM based flexible structures, where the main excitation crank train, timing drive, valve train system and piston secondary motion are considered. Within the extended approach the noise excitation of the hydraulic and mechanical parts of the entire fuel system is calculated and subsequently considered within the multi-body dynamic simulation for acoustic evaluation of structural vibrations.
Technical Paper

Shape Optimization by an Adjoint Solver based on a near-wall Turbulence Model

The aim of this paper is to present the adjoint equations for shape optimization derived from steady incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations and an objective functional. These adjoint Navier-Stokes equations have a similar form as the N-S equations, while the source terms and the boundary conditions depend on the chosen objective. Additionally, the gradient of the targeted objective with respect to the design variables is calculated. Based on this, a modification of the geometry is computed to arrive at an improved objective value. In order to find out, whether a more sophisticated approach is needed, the adjoint equations are derived by using two different approaches. The first approach is based on the frozen turbulence assumption and the second approach, which is advanced in this paper, is derived from the near wall k − ζ − f turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Scale-Resolving Simulation of an ‘On-Road’ Overtaking Maneuver Involving Model Vehicles

Aerodynamic properties of a BMW car model taking over a truck model are studied computationally by applying the scale-resolving PANS (Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes) approach. Both vehicles represent down-scaled (1:2.5), geometrically-similar models of realistic vehicle configurations for which on-road measurements have been performed by Schrefl (2008). The operating conditions of the modelled ‘on-road’ overtaking maneuver are determined by applying the dynamic similarity concept in terms of Reynolds number consistency. The simulated vehicle configuration constitutes of a non-moving truck model and a car model moving against the air flow, the velocity of which corresponds to the car velocity.
Technical Paper

Real Time Capable Pollutant Formation and Exhaust Aftertreatment Modeling-HSDI Diesel Engine Simulation

Modern Diesel engines require an integrated development of combustion strategies, air management and exhaust aftertreatment. This study presents a comprehensive simulation approach with the aim to support engine development activities in the virtual environment. A real-time capable engine, vehicle and control model is extended by three key features. First, a pollutant production model is embedded in a two-zone cylinder model. Second, a framework for catalytic pollutant conversion is built focusing on modern diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. Third, an extended species transport model is introduced considering the transport of pollutants through the air path. The entire plant model is validated on the example of a passenger car Diesel engine. The predicted engine behavior is compared with steady-state measurements. The NO formation model is investigated for a series of steady-state and transient operating conditions.
Journal Article

Predicted Roughness Perception for Simulated Vehicle Interior Noise

In the past the exterior and interior noise level of vehicles has been largely reduced to follow stricter legislation and due to the demand of the customers. As a consequence, the noise quality and no longer the noise level inside the vehicle plays a crucial role. For an economic development of new powertrains it is important to assess noise quality already in early development stages by the use of simulation. Recent progress in NVH simulation methods of powertrain and vehicle in time and frequency domain provides the basis to pre-calculated sound pressure signals at arbitrary positions in the car interior. Advanced simulation tools for elastic multi-body simulation and novel strategies to measure acoustical transfer paths are combined to achieve this goal. In order to evaluate the obtained sound impression a roughness prediction model has been developed. The proposed roughness model is a continuation of the model published by Hoeldrich and Pflueger.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.
Journal Article

Power Train Model Refinement Linked with Parameter Updating Through Nonlinear Optimization

In the virtual development process validated simulation models are requested to accurately predict power train vibration and comfort phenomena. Conclusions from refined parameter studies enable to avoid costly tests on rigs and on the road. Thereby, an appropriate modeling approach for specific phenomena has to be chosen to ensure high quality results. But then, parameters for characterizing the dynamic properties of components are often insufficient and have to be roughly estimated in this development stage. This results in a imprecise prediction of power train resonances and in a less conclusive understanding of the considered phenomena. Conclusions for improvements remain uncertain. This paper deals with the two different aspects of model refinement and parameter updating. First an existing power train model (predecessor power train) is analyzed whether the underlying modeling approach can reproduce the physical behavior of the power train dynamics adequately.
Technical Paper

Power Electronic Noise-Simulation Measurement Comparison

A growing development of hybrid or fully electrical drives increases the demand for an accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristics of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emissions from power electronics, as one of the new important noise sources in electric vehicles. The noise emitted from the printed circuit board (PCB) equipped with multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) is measured and used for the calibration and validation of numerical model. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis, with special attention to the orthotropic characteristic of the PCB glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheet (FR-4). Electroacoustic excitation is pre-calculated using an extension of schematic-based EMC simulation and applied to the structural model. Structural vibrations are calculated with a commercial FEM solver with the modal frequency response analysis.
Technical Paper

Plant Modeling for Closed Loop Combustion Control - A Thermodynamic Consistent and Real-Time Capable Approach

Direct injection Diesel engines are a propulsion technology that is continuously developed to meet emission standards. Great optimization potential lies in the combustion process itself. The application of closed loop combustion control allows reacting online to environmental conditions and stabilizing the combustion regarding performance and emissions. Dedicated real-time plant models help to develop and calibrate control algorithms in office and hardware in the loop environments. The present work describes a real-time capable, crank-angle resolved engine, cylinder and combustion model. The cylinder applies an 0D, two-zone approach and a phenomenological combustion model describes ignition delay, premixed and diffusive combustion. The latter is enhanced by a quasi-dimensional description of the injection spray. The model is validated with dedicated measurements. The plant model is applied in two use-cases for closed loop combustion control.