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Technical Paper

The Turbocharged GDI Engine: Boosted Synergies for High Fuel Economy Plus Ultra-low Emission

Recent turbocharged Gasoline engines based on MPFI offer excellent power output and high nominal torque, however, also some disadvantages. The most significant restrictions of TC-engines - like poor fuel economy, limited emission capability and delayed transient response (turbo lag) - can be improved dramatically by a refined GDI application. The synergy effects of GDI, which are also partly used at naturally aspirated engines, are even more significant with turbocharging. The low emission capability of GDI enables turbocharged SULEV concepts within moderate cost of the emission / aftertreatment system. The outstanding low-end-torque, the high specific power and torque output of refined GDI-Turbo concepts enable high fuel efficiency combined with excellent fun to drive. Thus such GDI-Turbo concepts will become the most attractive technology to fulfill highest fuel economy-, emission- and performance requirements simultaneously.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Emissions and Fuel Economy Requirements on Fuel Injection System and Noise of HD Diesel Engines

Despite the increasingly stringent emissions legislation, users and owners of commercial diesel vehicles are continually demanding that each new engine generation is more economical than the previous one. This is especially important for commercial vehicles where the majority of engines are in the 1-2ltr./cyl. class. The demands are being reflected in new engine designs with lower friction and improved structural stiffness, together with fuel systems having increased pressure capability, higher spill rates, injection rate shaping and advanced control features. These fuel system requirements have led to a variety of new fuel injection systems and in the search for increased injection pressure these fuel systems have placed greater demands on the engine, especially in areas such as the cylinder head and fuel system drive, sometimes with adverse effects on the combustion and fuel injection system induced mechanical noise.
Technical Paper

The Dual Mode VCS Conrod System – Functional Development and Oil Investigations

Abstract Variable Compression Systems (VCS) for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will become increasingly more important in the future to meet stringent global fuel economy and CO2 standards. A Dual Mode VCS is in development at AVL and the basic functionality and potential were described in a technical paper which was presented at the SAE WCX 2017 [1]. The system is based on a hydraulically switched and locked conrod with telescopic shank. The AVL Dual Mode VCS was designed and virtually optimized with CAE simulation methods for the boundary conditions of a typical 2.0 L Inline (I) 4 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) engine representing state-of-the-art gasoline engine technology for the next years to come.
Technical Paper

The 2-Step VCR Conrod System - Modular System for High Efficiency and Reduced CO2

Abstract In order to achieve future CO2 targets - in particular under real driving conditions - different powertrain technologies will have to be introduced. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the internal combustion engine. In addition to further optimization of the combustion processes and the reduction of mechanical losses in the thermal- and energetic systems, the introduction of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is probably the measure with the highest potential for fuel economy improvement. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The basic principle of the AVL VCR system described in this paper is a 2-stage variation of the conrod length and thus the Compression Ratio (CR).
Technical Paper

Sound Optimization for Downsized Engines

Abstract Today, the number of downsized engines with two or three cylinders is increasing due to an increase in fuel efficiency. However, downsized engines exhibit unbalanced interior sound in the range of their optimal engine speed, largely because of their dominant engine orders. In particular, the sound of two-cylinder engines yields half the perceived engine speed of an equivalent four-cylinder engine at the same engine speed. As a result when driving, the two-cylinder engine would be shifted to higher gears much later, diminishing the expected fuel savings. This contribution presents an active in-car sound generation system that makes a two-cylinder engine sound like the more familiar four-cylinder engine. This is done by active, load-dependent playback of signals extracted from the engine vibration through a shaker mounted on the firewall. A blind test with audio experts indicates a significant reduction of the engine speed when shifting to a higher gear.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Mixture Formation and Performance in a Direct Injection CNG Engine

This paper presents the results of part of the research activity carried out by the Politecnico di Torino and AVL List GmbH as part of the European Community InGAS Collaborative Project. The work was aimed at developing a combustion system for a mono-fuel turbocharged CNG engine, with specific focus on performance, fuel economy and emissions. A numerical and experimental analysis of the jet development and mixture formation in an optically accessible, single cylinder engine is presented in the paper. The experimental investigations were performed at the AVL laboratories by means of the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique, and revealed a cycle-to-cycle jet shape variability that depended, amongst others, on the injector characteristics and in-cylinder backpressure. Moreover, the mixing mechanism had to be optimized over a wide range of operating conditions, under both stratified lean and homogeneous stoichiometric modes.
Technical Paper

Novel Shift Control without Clutch Slip in Hybrid Transmissions

Abstract With the introduction of new regulations on emissions, fuel efficiency, driving cycles, etc. challenges for the powertrains are significantly increasing. In order to fulfil these regulations, hybrid-electric powertrains are an unquestioned option for short and long-term solutions. Hybridization however, is not only fulfilling these challenging efficiency or emission targets, but also allows numerous new possibilities on control strategies of different powertrain elements as well as new approaches of designing them. A good example is transmissions where, hybridization allows a new transmission type called Dedicated Hybrid Transmission (DHT), which enables to use novel control strategies bringing improved performance, driveability, durability and NVH behavior. This paper focuses on the novel shift strategy where friction clutches do not have to slip.
Technical Paper

Key Steps and Methods in the Design and Development of Low Noise Engines

The next generation of automotive engines has to meet 2004 emission limits, ideally with improved fuel economy and with noise emission which is at least 3 dBA below the current status. Using both simulation and experimental analysis these challenging requirements can only be fulfilled by clearly defining all key steps in NVH development and by applying suitable technological methods. The development procedure discussed in this paper is characterised by several aspects: two stage prediction procedure fully integrated in the design process, combustion development with a definite focus on noise, a closed loop between simulation and test bed development and consideration of noise in the calibration of engine and drivetrain management systems. Apart from meeting target noise levels, noise quality is the reference parameter which is continuously evaluated by means of the AVL Annoyance Index.
Technical Paper

Experimental Design for Characterization of Force Transmissibility through Bearings in Electric Machines and Transmissions

Abstract With the increasing stringent emissions legislation on ICEs, alongside requirements for enhanced fuel efficiency as key driving factors for many OEMs, there are many research activities supported by the automotive industry that focus on the development of hybrid and pure EVs. This change in direction from engine downsizing to the use of electric motors presents many new challenges concerning NVH performance, durability and component life. This paper presents the development of experimental methodology into the measurement of NVH characteristics in these new powertrains, thus characterizing the structure borne noise transmissibility through the shaft and the bearing to the housing. A feasibility study and design of a new system level test rig have been conducted to allow for sinusoidal radial loading of the shaft, which is synchronized with the shaft’s rotary frequency under high-speed transient conditions in order to evaluate the phenomena in the system.
Technical Paper

Development of New I3 1.0L Turbocharged DI Gasoline Engine

Abstract In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislations on fuel consumption and emissions. Turbocharged downsized gasoline direct injection (DI) engines are playing an increasing important role in OEM’s powertrain strategies and engine product portfolio. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new 1.0 liter 3-cylinder Turbocharged gasoline DI (TGDI) engine (hereinafter referred to as C10TD) to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concept of the C10TD engine is explained to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerns about the fuel cost and pollution.
Journal Article

Definition of Gearshift Pattern: Innovative Optimization Procedures Using System Simulation

Today's powertrains are becoming more and more complex due to the increasing number of gear box types requiring gearshift patterns like conventional (equipped with GSI) and automatic-manual transmissions (AT, AMT), double clutch and continuous variable transmissions (DCT, CVT). This increasing variety of gear boxes requires a higher effort for the overall optimization of the powertrain. At the same time, it is necessary to assess the impact of different powertrains and control strategies on CO₂ emissions very early in the development process. The optimization of Gear Shift Patterns (G.S.P.) has to fulfill multiple constraints in terms of objective customers' requirements, like driveability, NVH, performance, emissions and fuel consumption. For these reasons, RENAULT and AVL entered an engineering collaboration in order to develop a dedicated simulation tool: CRUISE GSP.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Solutions for Range Extenders - From Concept Considerations to Practical Experiences

For a broad acceptance of electric vehicles, the trade-off between all electric range and battery cost respectively weight represents the most important challenge. The all electric range obtained under real world conditions most often deviates significantly from the nominal value which is measured under idealized conditions. Under extreme conditions - slow traffic and demanding requirements for cabin heating or cooling - the electrical range might become less a question of spatial distance but even more of total operation time. Whereas with conventional powertrain, high flexibility of the total driving range can be obtained without sacrificing cost, with a pure battery vehicle this results in extreme high cost and weight of the energy storage. Therefore the difference between the typical daily driving range (e.g. in Germany 80-90% is below 50 km) and the minimum total range requested by most customers for acceptance of battery vehicles (200- 250 km), becomes essential.