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Journal Article

xD+1D Catalyst Simulation-A Numerical Study on the Impact of Pore Diffusion

2012-04-16
2012-01-1296
This paper presents a numerical study on the impact of washcoat diffusion on the overall conversion performance of catalytic converters. A comprehensive transient 1D pore diffusion reaction model is embedded in state-of-the-art 1D and 3D catalytic converter models. The pore diffusion model is discussed with its model equations and the applied diffusive transport approaches are summarized. The diffusion reaction model is validated with the help of two available analytical solutions. The impact of basic washcoat characteristics such as pore diameters or thickness on overall conversion performance is investigated by selected 1D+1D calculations. This model is also used to highlight the impact of boundary layer transfer, pore diffusion and reaction on the overall converter conversion performance. The interaction of pore diffusion and flow non-uniformities is demonstrated by 3D+1D CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

Virtual Optimization of Race Engines Through an Extended Quasi Steady State Lap Time Simulation Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0587
Abstract Minimizing the lap time for a given race track is the main target in racecar development. In order to achieve the highest possible performance of the vehicle configuration the mutual interaction at the level of assemblies and components requires a balance between the advantages and disadvantages for each design decision. Especially the major shift in the focus of racecar powerunit development to high efficiency powertrains is driving a development of lean boosted and rightsized engines. In terms of dynamic engine behavior the time delay from requested to provided torque could influence the lap time performance. Therefore, solely maximizing the full load behavior objective is insufficient to achieve minimal lap time. By means of continuous predictive virtual methods throughout the whole development process, the influence on lap time by dynamic power lags, e.g. caused by the boost system, can be recognized efficiently even in the early concept phase.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Thermal Management Simulation Method Integrated in the Development Process from Scratch to Prototype

2014-04-01
2014-01-0668
Abstract In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Furthermore the increasing number of vehicle configurations leads to a high variability and degrees of freedom in possible system designs and the control thereof, which can only be handled by a comprehensive tool chain of vehicle system simulation and a generic control system architecture. The required model must comprise all relevant systems of the vehicle (control functionality, cooling system, lubrication system, engine, drive train, HV components etc.). For proper prediction with respect to energy consumption all interactions and interdependencies of those systems have to be taken into consideration, i.e. all energy fluxes (mechanical, hydraulically, electrical, thermal) have to be exchanged among the system boundaries accordingly.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sound Engineering by Modifying Intake / Exhaust Orifice Noise Using Simulation Software

2003-05-05
2003-01-1686
Apart of other aspects, the interior sound of a passenger car brand has to meet customer expectations. For optimizing the sound of a passenger car, target sounds have first to be established via the operating range of the vehicle. For an effective sound engineering approach an objective description and evaluation of vehicle interior sound is beneficial. Such an objective description guarantees the effective and reproducible implementation of the required brand sound in the vehicle development process. In such a process it is necessary to reduce on the one hand annoying undesired noise aspects and to create on the other hand the relevant and necessary noise parameters to meet the target sounds head on.
Journal Article

Use of a Catalytic Stripper as an Alternative to the Original PMP Measurement Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1563
The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) developed an exhaust particle number measurement protocol that has been adopted by current light duty vehicle emission regulations in Europe. This includes thermal treatment of the exhaust aerosol to isolate solid particles only and a number counting device with a lower cutpoint of 23 nm to avoid measurement of smaller particles that may affect the repeatability of the measurement. In this paper, we examine a potential alternative to the PMP system, where the thermal treatment is replaced by a catalytic stripper (CS). This offers oxidation and not just evaporation of the volatile components. Alternative sampling systems, either fulfilling the PMP recommendations or utilizing a CS, have been explored in terms of their volatile particle removal efficiency. Tests have been conducted on diesel exhaust, diesel equipped with DPF and gasoline direct injection emissions.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Noise Quality Parameters for Efficient TC Noise Assessment and Refinement

2016-06-15
2016-01-1817
Abstract Due to more challenging future emission legislations and the trend towards downsizing, the number of turbocharged (TC) engines, especially petrol engines, is steadily increasing. The usage of TC has high risk to cause different noise phenomena apparent in the vehicle interior which are often perceived as annoying for the passengers. In order to further improve consideration of TC topics in the development, objective judgment and monitoring of TC noise issues is of high importance. Therefore, objective parameters and corresponding tools that are especially focusing on TC noise phenomena have to be developed. One main target of these tools is to deliver an objective TC assessment in an efficient way and with minimum additional effort. Application of the criteria presented in this publication therefore allows acoustic engineers to judge the NVH behavior and annoyance of the TC with respect to its vehicle interior noise contribution.
Technical Paper

Tool Based Calibration with the OBDmanager

2010-04-12
2010-01-0249
At the moment the documentation of failure inhibition matrices and the fault path management for different controller types and different vehicle projects are mainly maintained manually in individual Excel tables. This is not only time consuming but also gives a high potential for fault liability. In addition there is also no guarantee that the calibration of these failure inhibition matrices and its fault path really works. Conflicting aims between costs, time and fault liability require a new approach for the calibration, documentation and testing of failure inhibition matrices and the complete Diagnostic System Management (DSM) calibration. The standardization and harmonization of the Diagnostic System Management calibration for different calibration projects and derivates is the first step to reduce time and costs. Creating a master calibration for the conjoint fault paths and labels provides a significant reduction of efforts.
Technical Paper

Timing Protection in Multifunctional and Safety-Related Automotive Control Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0757
With the ever increasing amount of available software processing resources in a vehicle, more and more high-level algorithms are emerging to improve the existing systems in a car. Often these algorithms only need a platform with a bus connection and some resources such as processing power and memory space. These functions are predestined to be integrated into existing systems that have free resources. This paper will examine the role of time protection in these multi-algorithm systems and describe what timing protection means and why it is required. The processing time will be partitioned to the different processing levels like interrupts, services and tasks. The problems of timing protection will be illustrated as well as its limitations. The conflict between real-time requirements and timing protection will be shown. Finally Autosar will be examined with focus on timing protection and applicability in actual development projects.
Journal Article

Timing Analysis for Hypervisor-based I/O Virtualization in Safety-Related Automotive Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1621
Abstract The increasing complexity of automotive functions which are necessary for improved driving assistance systems and automated driving require a change of common vehicle architectures. This includes new concepts for E/E architectures such as a domain-oriented vehicle network based on powerful Domain Control Units (DCUs). These highly integrated controllers consolidate several applications on different safety levels on the same ECU. Hence, the functions depend on a strictly separated and isolated implementation to guarantee a correct behavior. This requires middleware layers which guarantee task isolation and Quality of Service (QoS) communication have to provide several new features, depending on the domain the corresponding control unit is used for. In a first step we identify requirements for a middleware in automotive DCUs. Our goal is to reuse legacy AUTOSAR based code in a multicore domain controller.
Technical Paper

The Turbocharged GDI Engine: Boosted Synergies for High Fuel Economy Plus Ultra-low Emission

2006-04-03
2006-01-1266
Recent turbocharged Gasoline engines based on MPFI offer excellent power output and high nominal torque, however, also some disadvantages. The most significant restrictions of TC-engines - like poor fuel economy, limited emission capability and delayed transient response (turbo lag) - can be improved dramatically by a refined GDI application. The synergy effects of GDI, which are also partly used at naturally aspirated engines, are even more significant with turbocharging. The low emission capability of GDI enables turbocharged SULEV concepts within moderate cost of the emission / aftertreatment system. The outstanding low-end-torque, the high specific power and torque output of refined GDI-Turbo concepts enable high fuel efficiency combined with excellent fun to drive. Thus such GDI-Turbo concepts will become the most attractive technology to fulfill highest fuel economy-, emission- and performance requirements simultaneously.
Technical Paper

The OBD System Development Database - a Solution for Knowledge Management and Tool Supported Control System Design and Calibration

2014-04-01
2014-01-1171
The correct information about legal demands of the On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) system in a vehicle project is required throughout the entire development process. Usually, the main obstacle in succeeding is to provide the company's expertise of some few experts for all employees who work in OBD related projects. The paper describes the AVL solution for knowledge management and tool supported control system design and calibration: OBD System Development Database. The software enables the user to access the regulatory requirements for a specific application and legislation from past, present and future (proposed rule-making) point of view. Information concerning already available and stored monitoring concepts is linked to the requirements in order to re-use potentially suitable concepts and to enable an efficient knowledge exchange within the company.
Technical Paper

The Innovative Control Technology for a New Hydroforming Press Concept

2000-10-03
2000-01-2673
The company Schnupp GmbH + Co. Hydraulik KG, Bogen, has developed a new type of press for sheet metal hydroforming. The advantages of this machine are derived from its new cinematic characteristics, with spacers inserted between the machine frame and press ram during the forming process. These spacers transmit the high forces to the press frame via positive engagement. The nominal press force is generated by 100 short-stroke cylinder which are located underneath the table plate. These short-stroke cylinders, which can be switched on or off individually, are divided into six independent control circuits. Thus it is possible to influence the blankholder force locally during the forming process. A system of this kind has already found its successful application at AUDI AG, Ingolstadt, for the sheet metal hydroforming.
Technical Paper

The Influences on Real Driving Emissions in India Outlook RDE Legislation BHARAT VI

2017-01-10
2017-26-0137
Abstract With the official publication of the “RDE package 1” on 31st March 2016 the long awaited start of RDE testing is now fixed. This event marks a milestone in the emission legislation for passenger cars and is the first of a series of four RDE packages to fade-in real world testing of passenger cars in Europe. During the same time India announced in the Gazette of India on 19th February, 2016 - G.S.R. 187(E). - the draft of introduction of Bharat VI by April 1st 2020 [5] which also should include the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) on-road certification as per procedure laid down in AIS137 and as amended from time to time. As European RDE legislation will be the baseline for Indian RDE legislation rules this paper will highlight the differences and challenges expected between the requirements in Europe compared to India during the first tests done by AVL Technical Center Private Limited located in Gurgaon.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Emissions and Fuel Economy Requirements on Fuel Injection System and Noise of HD Diesel Engines

1998-02-01
980176
Despite the increasingly stringent emissions legislation, users and owners of commercial diesel vehicles are continually demanding that each new engine generation is more economical than the previous one. This is especially important for commercial vehicles where the majority of engines are in the 1-2ltr./cyl. class. The demands are being reflected in new engine designs with lower friction and improved structural stiffness, together with fuel systems having increased pressure capability, higher spill rates, injection rate shaping and advanced control features. These fuel system requirements have led to a variety of new fuel injection systems and in the search for increased injection pressure these fuel systems have placed greater demands on the engine, especially in areas such as the cylinder head and fuel system drive, sometimes with adverse effects on the combustion and fuel injection system induced mechanical noise.
Technical Paper

The Dual Mode VCS Conrod System – Functional Development and Oil Investigations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0878
Abstract Variable Compression Systems (VCS) for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will become increasingly more important in the future to meet stringent global fuel economy and CO2 standards. A Dual Mode VCS is in development at AVL and the basic functionality and potential were described in a technical paper which was presented at the SAE WCX 2017 [1]. The system is based on a hydraulically switched and locked conrod with telescopic shank. The AVL Dual Mode VCS was designed and virtually optimized with CAE simulation methods for the boundary conditions of a typical 2.0 L Inline (I) 4 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) engine representing state-of-the-art gasoline engine technology for the next years to come.
Technical Paper

The Direct Injection System of the 2001 Audi Turbo V8 Le Mans Engines

2002-12-02
2002-01-3357
Audi's successful 3.6 L V8 twin turbo Le Mans engine of 2000 has been developed to fuel direct injection (FSI®). Most of the modifications have been done in the area of the cylinderhead. Simulation and flow test bench work helped to define the basic parameters. The FSI® engine has a reduction in fuel consumption of 8 - 10 %, up to 9 % more torque throughout the entire speed range and much better driveability.
Technical Paper

The Creation of a Car Interior Noise Quality Index for the Evaluation of Rattle Phenomena

1997-05-20
972018
Rattle noise produced in the vehicle interior due to broadband excitation by road irregularities is a major concern with respect to driving comfort, and therefore has become one of the most important topics of acoustic development in recent years. A quantification i.e. measurement of this rattle noise is of fundamental importance for systematic development work and production control. Common noise level measurements (dB, dBA, etc. ) do not represent the rattle character in the vehicle interior as revealed during initial investigations. To overcome this problem and to substitute the subjective assessment with a combination of measurable parameters, the psychoacoustic software AVL-EAR was applied to create an Interior Rattle Quality Index. Based on more than 40 different vehicles that have been subjectively assessed by approximately 70 test persons, the index was generated by means of multiple pair comparisons and statistics on measurement data.
Technical Paper

The Audi Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: Final Design and First Operational Experience

2000-03-06
2000-01-0868
Audi's new full scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel is under full operation now. The new facility is designed for full scale automotive testing of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics for vehicles up to 3 m2 frontal area at wind speeds up to 300 kph. The highlights are the unique ground simulation system with boundary layer suction and a 5-belt-system, and the extremely low background noise of only 60 dB(A) at 160 kph. First the background of the project is illustrated and the need for the special features of the tunnel is deduced form the industrial requirements. Then an overview of the facility design is given with a detailed description of the key technical components. The calibration of the self-correcting test section will be discussed and the physical background for it will be examined more closely. For the calibrated wind tunnel the results of two correlation tests including open jet as well as closed wall wind tunnels show a reasonable conformity.
Technical Paper

The 2-Step VCR Conrod System - Modular System for High Efficiency and Reduced CO2

2017-03-28
2017-01-0634
Abstract In order to achieve future CO2 targets - in particular under real driving conditions - different powertrain technologies will have to be introduced. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the internal combustion engine. In addition to further optimization of the combustion processes and the reduction of mechanical losses in the thermal- and energetic systems, the introduction of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) is probably the measure with the highest potential for fuel economy improvement. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The basic principle of the AVL VCR system described in this paper is a 2-stage variation of the conrod length and thus the Compression Ratio (CR).
Technical Paper

Temperature Loads in Headlamps

2002-03-04
2002-01-0912
Today's car designers ask for compact and light-weighted headlamps with several new functional features and special stylistic elements. This yields in new lighting technology such as modern free form and ellipsoid module reflectors with small dimensions and the need to use highly sophisticated materials. Both of this is sensitive to the amount of temperature and at a critical level may cause irreversible damage. Therefore, it is necessary to predict temperature loads at an early development stage in order to ensure new headlamp concepts and to shorten development time. An approach to calculate and analyze temperatures in headlamps by continuum fluid dynamic methods (CFD) is presented which can be compared and correlated to measurements carried out with infrared thermography and demonstrates the benefit of this method.
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