Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Ways to Meet Future Emission Standards with Diesel Engine Powered Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV)

2000-03-06
2000-01-0181
The paper reports on the outcome of a still on-going joint-research project with the objective of establishing a demonstrator high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine in a Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) which allows to exploit the effectiveness of new engine and aftertreatment technologies for reducing exhaust emissions to future levels of US/EPA Tier 2 and Euro 4. This objective should be accomplished in three major steps: (1) reduce NOx by advanced engine technologies (cooled EGR, flexible high pressure common rail fuel injection system, adapted combustion system), (2) reduce particulates by the Continuous Regeneration Trap (CRT), and (3) reduce NOx further by a DeNOx aftertreatment technology. The current paper presents engine and vehicle results on step (1) and (2), and gives an outlook to step (3).
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Fuel Spray and Mixture Formation from Nozzle Internal Flow Calculation

2005-05-11
2005-01-2098
A series calculation methodology from the injector nozzle internal flow to the in-cylinder fuel spray and mixture formation in a diesel engine was developed. The present method was applied to a valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle with the recent common rail injector system. The nozzle internal flow calculation using an Eulerian three-fluid model and a cavitation model was performed. The needle valve movement during the injection period was taken into account in this calculation. Inside the nozzle hole, cavitation appears at the nozzle hole inlet edge, and the cavitation region separates into two regions due to a secondary flow in the cross section, and it is distributed to the nozzle exit. Unsteady change of the secondary flow caused by needle movement affects the cavitation distribution in the nozzle hole, and the spread angle of the velocity vector at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

VVT+Port Deactivation Application on a Small Displacement SI 4 Cylinder 16V Engine: An Effective Way to Reduce Vehicle Fuel Consumption

2003-03-03
2003-01-0020
During recent years several VVT devices have been developed, in order to improve either peak power and low end torque, or part load fuel consumption of SI engines. This paper describes an experimental activity, concerning the integration of a continuously variable cam phaser (CVCP), together with an intake port deactivation device, on a small 4 cylinder 16V engine. The target was to achieve significantly lower fuel consumption under normal driving conditions, compared to a standard MPFI application. A single hydraulic cam phaser is used to shift both the intake and the exhaust cams to retarded positions, at constant overlap. Thus, high EGR rates in the combustion chamber and late intake valve closure (“reverse Miller cycle”) are combined, in order to reduce pumping losses at part load.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation and Optimization Tools to Decide Engine Design Concepts

2000-03-06
2000-01-1267
To meet the future demands on internal combustion engines regarding efficiency emissions and durability all design parameters must be optimized together. As a result of progress in material engineering fuel injection technology turbo charging technology exhaust gas after treatment there arise a multiplicity of possible parameters, such as: design parameters (compression ratio, dimensioning depending on peak firing pressure and mean effective pressure), injection system (rate shaping, split injection, injection pressure, hole diameter), air management (turbo charging with or without VTG, EGR rate) combustion optimization (timing, air access ratio). The interaction of all these parameters can not be over-looked without simulation and optimization tools. This is valid for the concept layout, the optimization and the application process later on.
Technical Paper

ULEV Potential of a DI/TCI Diesel Passenger Car Engine Operated on Dimethyl Ether

1995-12-01
952754
The paper describes a feasibility test program on a 2 liter, 4 cylinder DI/TCI passenger car engine operated on the new alternative fuel Dimethyl Ether (DME, CH3 - O - CH3) with the aim of demonstrating its potential of meeting ULEV emissions (0.2 g/mi NOx in the FTP 75 test cycle) when installed in a full size passenger car. Special attention is drawn to the fuel injection equipment (FIE) as well as combustion system requirements towards the reduction of NOx and combustion noise while keeping energetic fuel consumption at the level of the baseline DI/TCI diesel engine. FIE and combustion system parameters were optimized on the steady state dynamometer by variation of a number of parameters, such as rate of injection, number of nozzle holes, compression ratio, piston bowl shape and exhaust gas recirculation.
Journal Article

Three-Way Catalyst Light-off During the NEDC Test Cycle: Fully Coupled 0D/1D Simulation of Gasoline Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Aftertreatment Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1755
The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires a steady development of engine control strategies in combination with efforts to optimize in-cylinder combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment. With the goal of optimizing the overall emission performance this study presents the comprehensive simulation approach of a virtual vehicle model. A well established 1D gas dynamics and engine simulation model is extended by four key features. These are models for combustion and pollutant production in the cylinder, a model for the conversion of pollutants in a catalyst and a model for the effect of manifold wall wetting and fuel evaporation. The general species transport feature is linking these model together as it allows to transport an arbitrary number of chemical species in the entire system. Finally this highly detailed engine model is integrated into a vehicle model.
Technical Paper

Thermal Mechanical Fatigue Simulation of Cast iron Cylinder Heads

2005-04-11
2005-01-0796
The requirement for increased power and reduced emission and fuel consumption levels for diesel engines has created very stringent demands on the cylinder head design. In current engine development programs it is often observed that the limiting design factor is given by the thermal mechanical fatigue strength of the cylinder head. Design iterations resulting from durability testing are often necessary due to the lack of adequate simulation techniques for prediction thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) failure. A complete lifetime simulation process is presented in this paper with emphasis on a newly developed material model for describing the constitutive behavior of cast iron (i.e. gray cast iron and compacted graphite iron) under thermal cycling. The material model formulation is based on a continuum-damage-mechanics (CDM) approach in order to account for the tension / compression anomaly of cast iron.
Technical Paper

The Single Cylinder OM441LA

2000-06-19
2000-01-1826
This paper will describe the design criteria for a single cylinder version of the Daimler-Chrysler OM441LA engine, which is currently used in multicylinder form as a key test in the ACEA A4 and A5 Oil Sequences. A test procedure has been developed for the single cylinder which provides results correlating with its multicylinder counterpart. The historical development of the procedure, correlation data, and economic benefits of use will be presented.
Technical Paper

The Performance of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with a Production Feasible DME Injection System

2001-09-24
2001-01-3629
Over the last few years there has been much interest in DiMethyl Ether (DME) as an alternative fuel for diesel cycle engines. It combines the advantages of a high cetane number with soot free combustion, which makes it eminently suitable for compression ignition engines. However, due to the fact that it is a gas under ambient conditions, it requires special fuel handling and a specially designed fuel injection system, which until recently, was not available. The use of the digital hydraulic operating system (DHOS), combined with a fuel handling system designed to cope with the properties of DME, enables the fuel to be safely and conveniently handled, In addition, the flexibility of the injection system enables injection pressures to be chosen according to the needs of the combustion.
Technical Paper

The Interaction Between Diesel Fuel Density and Electronic Engine Management Systems

1996-10-01
961975
The influence of fuel density on exhaust emissions from diesel engines has been investigated in a number of studies and these have generally concluded that particulate emissions rise with increasing density This paper reviews recent work in this area, including the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) and reports on a complementary study conducted by CONCAWE, in cooperation with AVL List GmbH The project was carried out with a passenger car equipped with an advanced technology high speed direct injection turbocharged / intercooled diesel engine fitted with a complex engine management system which was referenced to a specific fuel density This production model featured electronic diesel control, closed loop exhaust gas recirculation and an exhaust oxidation catalyst Tests were carried out with two EPEFE fuels which excluded the influence of key fuel properties other than density (828 8 and 855 1 kg/m3) Engine operation was adjusted for changes in fuel density by resetting the electronic programmable, read-only memory to obtain the same energy output from the two test fuels In chassis dynamometer tests over the ECE15 + EUDC test cycle the major impact of fuel density on particulate emissions for advanced engine technology/engine management systems was established A large proportion of the density effect on particulate and NOx emissions was due to physical interaction between fuel density and the electronic engine management system Limited bench engine testing of the basic engine showed that nearly complete compensation of the density effect on smoke (particulate) emissions could be achieved when no advanced technology was applied
Technical Paper

The Influence of Inlet Port Design on the In-Cylinder Charge Mixing

1989-02-01
890842
A detailed investigation of the influence of intake port design on the in-cylinder flow structure during the intake and compression strokes, the mixing of the residual gas and a non-premixed intake charge, and the extent and pattern of charge inhomogenity near the time of combustion is described. The engine geometry is typical of the current lean-burn design and the study includes comparison of a helical (swirl) port and an idealized direct (no swirl) port designs. The results show marked dependence of the in-cylinder charge mixing characteristics on the intake port design. It is found that combinations of intake port design and manifold fuel injection timing produce favourably-stratified or irregularly-mixed charge distributions at the time of spark ignition. The consequences with respect to combustion characteristics are pointed out.
Technical Paper

The Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment (DEXA) Cluster: A Systematic Approach to Diesel Particulate Emission Control in Europe

2004-03-08
2004-01-0694
The DEXA Cluster consisted of three closely interlinked projects. In 2003 the DEXA Cluster concluded by demonstrating the successful development of critical technologies for Diesel exhaust particulate after-treatment, without adverse effects on NOx emissions and maintaining the fuel economy advantages of the Diesel engine well beyond the EURO IV (2000) emission standards horizon. In the present paper the most important results of the DEXA Cluster projects in the demonstration of advanced particulate control technologies, the development of a simulation toolkit for the design of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems and the development of novel particulate characterization methodologies, are presented. The motivation for the DEXA Cluster research was to increase the market competitiveness of diesel engine powertrains for passenger cars worldwide, and to accelerate the adoption of particulate control technology.
Technical Paper

The Clean Heavy Duty Diesel Engine of the Future: Strategies for Emission Compliance

2001-11-01
2001-28-0045
The internal combustion engines, and the heavy duty truck diesel engines in particular, are facing a severe challenge to cope with the upcoming stringent emission legislation world-wide. To comply with these low limits, engine internal measures must be complemented with exhaust gas aftertreatment systems with sophisticated electronic control. A reduction of NOx and particulate emission of more than 90% is required. Various strategies to comply with Euro 4, 5 and US 2007 are discussed, also in view of engine performance, fuel economy and cooling system load. Recommendations are given for the most suitable approach to comply also in future with emission legislation in Europe and the United States.
Technical Paper

The Application of a New Software Tool for Separating Engine Combustion and Mechanical Noise Excitation

2007-05-15
2007-01-2376
The optimization of engine NVH is still an important aspect for vehicle interior and exterior noise radiation. To optimize the engine noise / vibration contribution to the vehicle, a complete understanding of the excitation mechanism, the vibration transfer in the engine structure and the radiation efficiency of the individual engine components is required. Concerning the excitation within the engine, a very efficient analysis methodology for the combustion- and mechanical excitation within gasoline and diesel engines has been developed. Out of this methodology a software tool has been designed for a fast, efficient and detailed evaluation of the combustion- and mechanical excitation content of total engine noise. Recently this software tool has been successfully applied in engine NVH optimization work for defining the best optimization strategies for engine NVH reduction and noise quality improvement especially with respect to combustion excitation.
Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0964
This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Technical Paper

Single Cylinder 25kW Range Extender as Alternative to a Rotary Engine Maintaining High Compactness and NVH Performance

2013-10-15
2013-32-9132
Due to the restricted capacity of today's battery systems and therefore limited operating range of electric vehicles (EV), several solutions for recharging the energy storage during driving already have been published and still are the subject of extensive development programs. One example is the Range Extender (RE), which is a combination of an internal combustion engine (ICE) with a generator unit, which serves the purpose of a power back-up in case of a battery with low state of charge (SOC), without any direct connection to the drivetrain. For this kind of RE-application, different boundary conditions are very important. Especially in EVs topics like packaging space and NVH behavior play a main role. To fulfill these important characteristics, AVL has developed a Wankel-RE unit in which the generator is driven directly from the eccentric shaft of the rotary-piston ICE.
Technical Paper

Scale-Resolving Simulations of the Flow in Intake Port Geometries

2016-04-05
2016-01-0589
A computational study of the flow in intake port geometries has been performed. Three different intake port geometries, namely two combined tangential and helical ports and one quiescent port were analyzed. Each of these cases was calculated for different valve lifts and the results were compared with available measurements. The focus of this paper is on the performance assessment of the variable resolution Partial-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method. Calculations have been also performed with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model, which is presently a state-of-the-art approach for this application in the industry. Besides the averaged integral values like a discharge coefficient and a swirl coefficient, the predicted velocity magnitude fields at the measured cross sections of the ports are compared due to available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements.
Technical Paper

SI Engine Combustion and Knock Modelling Using Detailed Fuel Surrogate Models and Tabulated Chemistry

2019-04-02
2019-01-0205
In the context of today’s and future legislative requirements for NOx and soot particle emissions as well as today’s market trends for further efficiency gains in gasoline engines, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models need to further improve their intrinsic predictive capability to fulfill OEM needs towards the future. Improving fuel chemistry modelling, knock predictions and the modelling of the interaction between the chemistry and turbulent flow are three key challenges to improve the predictivity of CFD simulations of Spark-Ignited (SI) engines. The Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) combustion modelling approach addresses these challenges. By using chemistry pre-tabulation technologies, today’s most detailed fuel chemistry models can be included in the CFD simulation. This allows a much more refined description of auto-ignition delays for knock as well as radical concentrations which feed into emission models, at comparable or even reduced overall CFD run-time.
Technical Paper

Rate of Heat Release Prediction for Direct Injection Diesel Engines Based on Purely Mixing Controlled Combustion

1999-03-01
1999-01-0186
The subject of this paper is the discussion of a non-dimensional combustion model that relies on the concept of mixing controlled combustion (MCC Heat Release Rate) avoiding the detailed description of the individual mixture formation and fuel oxidation processes. For diffusion combustion in today's direct injection diesel engines it can be shown that the rate of heat release (ROHR) is controlled mainly by two items, i.e. the instantaneous fuel mass present in the cylinder charge and the local density of turbulent kinetic energy. Both items can be derived from the injection process, the instantaneous fuel mass being the difference of fuel injected minus fuel burnt and the turbulent kinetic energy being produced mainly by the momentum of the fuel sprays. Following this strategy, the injection process is now understood as the most important controlling factor for the heat release rate.
Technical Paper

Production Feasible DME Technology for Direct Injection CI Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-2015
DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been shown to be a very attractive fuel for low emission direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engines. It combines the advantages of the high efficiencies of diesel cycle engines with soot free combustion. However, its greatest drawback is the need to develop new fuel injection and handling systems. Previous approaches have been common rail type injection systems which have shown great potential in reducing harmful exhaust emissions and achieving good engine performance and efficiency due to good control of both the fuel injection characteristics and temperature. The concept also has proven benefits with respect to convenient and safe fuel handling. The logical evolution of this concept simplifies the fuel system and avoids special components for DME handling such as high pressure rail pumps while retaining all the benefits of the common rail principle.
X