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Technical Paper

The Turbocharged GDI Engine: Boosted Synergies for High Fuel Economy Plus Ultra-low Emission

Recent turbocharged Gasoline engines based on MPFI offer excellent power output and high nominal torque, however, also some disadvantages. The most significant restrictions of TC-engines - like poor fuel economy, limited emission capability and delayed transient response (turbo lag) - can be improved dramatically by a refined GDI application. The synergy effects of GDI, which are also partly used at naturally aspirated engines, are even more significant with turbocharging. The low emission capability of GDI enables turbocharged SULEV concepts within moderate cost of the emission / aftertreatment system. The outstanding low-end-torque, the high specific power and torque output of refined GDI-Turbo concepts enable high fuel efficiency combined with excellent fun to drive. Thus such GDI-Turbo concepts will become the most attractive technology to fulfill highest fuel economy-, emission- and performance requirements simultaneously.
Technical Paper

The Dual Mode VCS Conrod System – Functional Development and Oil Investigations

Variable Compression Systems (VCS) for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will become increasingly more important in the future to meet stringent global fuel economy and CO2 standards. A Dual Mode VCS is in development at AVL and the basic functionality and potential were described in a technical paper which was presented at the SAE WCX 2017 [1]. The system is based on a hydraulically switched and locked conrod with telescopic shank. The AVL Dual Mode VCS was designed and virtually optimized with CAE simulation methods for the boundary conditions of a typical 2.0 L Inline (I) 4 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (TGDI) engine representing state-of-the-art gasoline engine technology for the next years to come.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Trucks and the Impact of Tire Rolling Resistance

The cost of fuel for commercial trucks is second only to labor in the total vehicle operating costs. Therefore, technologies that reduce fuel consumption can have a significant impact on the bottom line for both trucking fleets and owner/operators. Quantifying the fuel savings associated with different technologies, however, is complicated by many factors, and short-term testing often cannot adequately quantify small changes in fuel consumption that, over time, can add up to substantial cost savings on a vehicle. For example, fuel economy gains of less than one percent may not be reliably measurable using fuel tests, and variable environmental and use factors can cast some doubt on the appropriateness of short-term testing.
Technical Paper

Integration of an E85 Reforming System into a Vehicle-Ready Package and Project Results

Ethanol can be converted into a 1:1:1 mixture of H2, CO, and CH4 at 300°C using a copper-nickel catalyst, a process known as “low-temperature ethanol reforming.” The hydrogen content of this mixture enables an engine to operate lean or with high levels of EGR, improving fuel economy and emissions. An onboard ethanol reformer- a catalyst module providing heat exchange with exhaust-was recently reported and shown to exhibit stable high conversion of ethanol driven by exhaust heat. This paper describes the successful integration and operation of a Ford 3.5L 3 TiVCT flex-fuel engine with a compact reformer and auxiliary hardware, fueled by E85. The system constitutes an integrated power system suitable for vehicle integration. The engine was operated on a mixture of E85 and reformate using a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio with internal EGR at a 12:1 compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Ford 2011 6.7L Power Stroke® Diesel Engine Combustion System Development

A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbo Diesel, and code named "Scorpion," was designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. The combustion system includes the piston bowl, swirl level, number of nozzle holes, fuel spray angle, nozzle tip protrusion, nozzle hydraulic flow, and nozzle-hole taper. While all of these parameters could be explored through extensive hardware testing, 3-D CFD studies were utilized to quickly screen two bowl concepts and assess their sensitivities to a few of the other parameters. The two most promising bowl concepts were built into single-cylinder engines for optimization of the rest of the combustion system parameters. 1-D CFD models were used to set boundary conditions at intake valve closure for 3-D CFD which was used for the closed-cycle portion of the simulation.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Octane Rating and Ethanol Content on Knock, Fuel Economy, and CO2 for a Turbocharged DI Engine

Engine dynamometer testing was performed comparing fuels having different octane ratings and ethanol content in a Ford 3.5L direct injection turbocharged (EcoBoost) engine at three compression ratios (CRs). The fuels included midlevel ethanol “splash blend” and “octane-matched blend” fuels, E10-98RON (U.S. premium), and E85-108RON. For the splash blends, denatured ethanol was added to E10-91RON, which resulted in E20-96RON and E30-101 RON. For the octane-matched blends, gasoline blendstocks were formulated to maintain constant RON and MON for E10, E20, and E30. The match blend E20-91RON and E30-91RON showed no knock benefit compared to the baseline E10-91RON fuel. However, the splash blend E20-96RON and E10-98RON enabled 11.9:1 CR with similar knock performance to E10-91RON at 10:1 CR. The splash blend E30-101RON enabled 13:1 CR with better knock performance than E10-91RON at 10:1 CR. As expected, E85-108RON exhibited dramatically better knock performance than E30-101RON.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.

Development of a Variable Compression Ratio GTDI Engine with 2-Stage Turbocharging and Cooled External EGR

The benefits of adding variable compression ratio (VCR) capability to a Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) has been experimentally explored by AVL to quantify the potential efficiency improvements along with other combustion benefits and challenges. The development process is discussed along with key results showing how the combination of VCR, GDI, external cooled EGR and variable cam phasing was optimized to achieve maximum benefit. The concept demonstrates aggressive downsizing capability with BMEP levels above 40 bar BMEP with a two-stage turbocharging system on 95 RON gasoline. The iso-BSFC sweet spot was also improved with reduced BSFC over a broader operating range. The issues of knock, low speed pre-ignition, particulates and sensitivity to octane level and ambient temperature conditions were also investigated and are discussed. Engine level results are shown translated into predicted NEDU vehicle fuel economy improvements.
Journal Article

An Overview of the Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on SI Engine Performance, Fuel Efficiency, and Emissions

This paper provides an overview of the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline for use in spark ignition engines. The overview is written from the perspective of considering a future ethanol-gasoline blend for use in vehicles that have been designed to accommodate such a fuel. Therefore discussion of the effects of ethanol-gasoline blends on older legacy vehicles is not included. As background, highlights of future emissions regulations are discussed. The effects on fuel properties of blending ethanol and gasoline are described. The substantial increase in knock resistance and full load performance associated with the addition of ethanol to gasoline is illustrated with example data. Aspects of fuel efficiency enabled by increased ethanol content are reviewed, including downsizing and downspeeding opportunities, increased compression ratio, fundamental effects associated with ethanol combustion, and reduced enrichment requirement at high speed/high load conditions.
Technical Paper

A Rankine Cycle System for Recovering Waste Heat from HD Diesel Engines - WHR System Development

Waste heat recovery (WHR) has been recognized as a promising technology to achieve the fuel economy and green house gas reduction goals for future heavy-duty (HD) truck diesel engines. A Rankine cycle system with ethanol as the working fluid was developed at AVL Powertrain Engineering, Inc. to investigate the fuel economy benefit from recovering waste heat from a 10.8L HD truck diesel engine. Thermodynamic analysis on this WHR system demonstrated that 5% fuel saving could be achievable. The fuel economy benefit can be further improved by optimizing the design of the WHR system components and through better utilization of the available engine waste heat. Although the WHR system was designed for a stand-alone system for the laboratory testing, all the heat exchangers were sized such that their heat transfer areas are equivalent to compact heat exchangers suitable for installation on a HD truck diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Rankine Cycle System for Recovering Waste Heat from HD Diesel Engines - Experimental Results

A Rankine cycle system with ethanol as the working fluid was developed to investigate the fuel economy benefit of recovering waste heat from a 10.8-liter heavy-duty (HD) truck diesel engine. Recovering rejected heat from a primary engine with a secondary bottoming cycle is a proven concept for improving the overall efficiency of the thermodynamic process. However, the application of waste heat recovery (WHR) technology to the HD diesel engine has proven to be challenging due to cost, complexity, packaging and control during transient operation. This paper discusses the methods and technical innovations required to achieve reliable high performance operation of the WHR system. The control techniques for maintaining optimum energy recovery while protecting the system components and working fluid are described. The experimental results are presented and demonstrate that 3-5% fuel saving is achievable by utilizing this technology.