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Journal Article

Quantitative Fuel-Air-Mixing Measurements in Diesel-Like Sprays Emanating from Convergent and Divergent Multi-Layer Nozzles

It is the objective of this work to characterize mixture formation in the sprays emanating from Multi-Layer (ML) nozzles under approximately engine-like conditions by quantitative, spatially, and temporally resolved fuel-air ratio and temperature measurements. ML nozzles are cluster nozzles which have more than one circle of orifices. They were introduced previously, in order to overcome the limitations of conventional nozzles. In particular, the ML design yields the potential of variable spray interaction, so that mixture formation could be controlled according to the operating condition. In general, it was also a primary aim of the cluster-nozzle concepts to combine the enhanced atomization and pre-mixing of small nozzle holes with the longer spray penetration lengths of large holes. The applied diagnostic, which is based on 1d spontaneous Raman scattering, yields the quantitative stoichiometric ratio and the temperature in the vapor phase.
Journal Article

Optimization of Electrified Powertrains for City Cars

Sustainable and energy-efficient consumption is a main concern in contemporary society. Driven by more stringent international requirements, automobile manufacturers have shifted the focus of development into new technologies such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). These powertrains offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system compared to conventional vehicles, but they also lead to higher complexities in the design process and in the control strategy. In order to obtain an optimum powertrain configuration, each component has to be laid out considering the best powertrain efficiency. With such a perspective, a simulation study was performed for the purpose of minimizing well-to-wheel CO2 emissions of a city car through electrification. Three different innovative systems, a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV), a Mixed Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV) and a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) were compared to a conventional one.
Journal Article

Effects of Mixture Stratification on Ignition and Combustion in a GCAI Engine

Fuel consumption and NOx emissions of gasoline engines at part load can be significantly reduced by Controlled Auto-Ignition combustion concepts. However, the range of Gasoline Controlled Auto-Ignition (GCAI) operation is still limited by lacking combustion stability at low load and by high pressure-rise rates toward higher loads. Previous investigations indicate that the auto-ignition process is particularly determined by the thermodynamic state of the charge and by stratification effects of residual gas, temperature, and air-fuel ratio. However, little experimental data exist on the direct influence of mixture stratification on local ignition and heat-release rate (HRR) in direct-injection (DI) GCAI engines, because it is challenging to measure all the relevant charge and combustion parameters quasi-simultaneously with sufficient spatial/temporal resolution and precision.