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Technical Paper

Variable Cycle Optimization for Supersonic Commercial Applications

Variable cycle engines (VCEs) hold promise as an enabling technology for supersonic business jet (SBJ) applications. Fuel consumption can potentially be minimized by modulating the engine cycle between the subsonic and supersonic phases of flight. The additional flexibility may also contribute toward meeting takeoff and landing noise and emissions requirements. Several different concepts have been and are currently being investigated to achieve variable cycle operation. The core-driven fan stage (CDFS) variable cycle engine is perhaps the most mature concept since an engine of this type flew in the USAF Advanced Tactical Fighter prototype program in the 1990s. Therefore, this type of VCE is of particular interest for potential commercial application. To investigate the potential benefits of a CDFS variable cycle engine, a parametric model is developed using the NASA Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS).
Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Evaluation of Turbofan Engine Cycle Parameters for a Mach 1.8 Interceptor Aircraft

A supersonic engine for a high Mach interceptor mission is modeled, and the requirements for the engine at different flight conditions are discussed. These include low fuel consumption at a non-afterburning supersonic dash Mach number for interception, and high thrust, both afterburning and non-afterburning, at a high subsonic Mach number for combat engagement. In addition, the engine should have low frontal area and low weight for a given sea level thrust rating. For the design point, the sea level static, standard day non-afterburning thrust is fixed at 20,000 lbs. The primary independent parameters varied in the study are fan pressure ratio, overall pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature, throttle ratio, and extraction ratio. A design of experiments (DoE) is set up to vary the independent parameters to produce a meta-model for engine performance, geometry and weight.
Technical Paper

A Bayesian Approach to Non-Deterministic Hypersonic Vehicle Design

Affordable, reliable endo- and exoatmospheric transportation, for both the military and commercial sectors, grows in importance as the world grows smaller and space exploration and exploitation increasingly impact our daily lives. However, the impact of disciplinary, operational, and technological uncertainties inhibit the design of the requisite hypersonic vehicles, an inherently multidisciplinary and non-deterministic process. Without investigation, these components of design uncertainty undermine the designers’ decision-making confidence. In this paper, the authors propose a new probabilistic design method, using Bayesian Statistics techniques, which allows assessment of the impact of disciplinary uncertainty on the confidence in the design solution. The proposed development of a two-stage reusable launch vehicle configuration highlights the means to first quantify the fidelity of the disciplinary analysis tools utilized, then propagate such to the vehicle system level.