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Technical Paper

Virtual Testing for High Lift Systems

2011-10-18
2011-01-2754
Improving the verification and certification process of the high lift system by introduction of virtual testing is one of the approaches to counter the challenges related to testing of future aircraft, in terms of performing more tests of more complex systems in less time. The quality of the applied modelling methods itself and the guarantee of a completely traceable simulation lifecycle management along the aircraft development are essential. The presentation shows how existing processes for the management of all test related data have to be extended to cover the specifics of using multi body simulation models for virtual tests related to high lift failure cases. Based on a demonstrator, MSC Software GmbH and Airbus developed and are still refining the SimManager based “High Lift System Virtual Test Portal”. This portal has to fulfil on the one side global requirements like data management, data traceability and workflow management.
Technical Paper

Vibration Assisted Drilling of Aerospace Materials

2016-09-27
2016-01-2136
Insufficient chip extraction often leads to disruptions of automated drilling processes and will have a negative impact on the surface qualities. One opportunity to avoid chip accumulation is based on a kinematically enforced chip breakage caused by sinusoidal axial oscillations of the drilling tool. Recent investigations have shown that the quality of chip extraction is, amongst others, considerably depending on the chip shape and mass which are defined by the cutting parameters feed, amplitude and frequency. So far only mechanical systems in the form of tool holders have been available on the market, which are restricted to a fixed frequency (oscillation frequency is coupled to the spindle speed). In the present study a spindle with magnetic bearings was used which allows to adjust the oscillation frequency independent of the spindle speed and therefore enables all opportunities to affect the generated chip shapes.
Technical Paper

Versatile NC Part Programs for Automated Fastening Systems in Pulsed Assembly Lines

2011-10-18
2011-01-2771
Pulsed assembly lines are providing an enormous potential to the aviation industry, especially in terms of reduced lead times, optimized asset utilization and an increased ratio of value adding processes. As it comes near to flow manufacturing the realization of a pulsed assembly line leads to special requirements to the use of NC programs for automated drilling and fastening processes, especially as a result of the unique part positions upon each pulse and concerning the balancing of the work onto several serialized fastening machines. The key to those challenges are versatile NC part programs that eliminate the need for any additionally written NC programs by self-adapting onto the concrete situation within the working areas of the production line.
Technical Paper

Software Complex for Riveting Process Simulation

2011-10-18
2011-01-2772
The presented paper describes the software complex developed in St. Petersburg Polytechnical University for AIRBUS aimed at simulation of aircraft assembly process. Previous version of this complex was described in [1].
Journal Article

Skills Synergy Leading to RTM Flow Simulation Success Story

2011-10-18
2011-01-2629
Industrial requirements imply optimizing the development cycle, reducing manufacturing costs and reaching marketable product maturity as fast as possible. The design stage often involves multiple sites and various partners. In this context, the use of computer simulation becomes absolutely necessary to meet industrial needs. Nevertheless, this activity can be effective only if it is integrated correctly in the industrial organization. In the aeronautical and space systems industry, mechanical specifications often require the use of composites reinforced by continuous carbon fibers. The goal of this article is to describe how, on a time frame of nearly twenty years, a series of scientific and technical tasks were carried out in partnership in order to develop, validate and implement Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) flow simulation and cure analysis for high performance composites. The research stage started at the university in 1991.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Aircraft Assembly via ASRP Software

2019-09-16
2019-01-1887
ASRP (Assembly Simulation of Riveting Process) software is a special tool for assembly process modelling for large scale airframe parts. On the base of variation simulation, ASRP provides a convenient way to analyze, verify and optimize the arrangement of temporary fasteners. During the assembly of airframe certain criteria on residual gap between parts must be fulfilled. The numerical approach implemented in ASRP allows to evaluate the quality of contact on every stage of assembly process and solve verification and optimization problems for temporary fastener patterns. The paper is devoted to description of several specialized approaches that combine statistical analysis of measured data and numerical simulation using high-performance computing for optimization of fastener patterns, calculation of forces in fasteners needed to close initial gaps, and identification of hazardous areas in junction regions via ASRP software.
Journal Article

Semi-Automated Vision-Based Construction of Safety Models from Engineering Drawings

2011-10-18
2011-01-2566
The work describes a concept application that aids a safety engineer to create a layup of equipment models by using an image scan of a schematic and a library of predefined standard component and their symbols. The approach uses image recognition techniques to identify the symbols within the scanned image of the schematic from a given library of symbols. Two recognition approaches are studied, one uses General Hough Transform; the other is based on pixel-level feature computation combining both structure and statistical features. The application allows the user to accept or edit the results of the recognition step and allows the user to define new components during the layup step. The tool then generates an output file that is compatible with a formal safety modeling tool. The identified symbols are associated to behavioral nodes from a model based safety tool.
Technical Paper

Rivetless Nutplate Developments for Aerospace Applications

2011-10-18
2011-01-2756
Within this paper, the AIRBUS approach on the development of rivetless nutplates as an alternative to riveted anchor nuts is described. Within the frame of a wider analysis, it was identified that currently used riveted anchor nut elements does have disadvantages with negative impact on an optimized cost-efficient and lead-time driven design and manufacturing environment. Rivetless nutplate systems provide some features that are potentially capable to mitigate some of the identified disadvantages of riveted elements. The paper covers the key requirements and objectives that were put in place in order to identify the most beneficial solution(s). It furthermore contains detailed information on the rivetless nutplate systems selected by AIRBUS and the justification for the selection that was made.
Technical Paper

Reducing Energy Use in Aircraft Component Manufacture - Applying Best Practice in Sustainable Manufacturing

2011-10-18
2011-01-2739
Rising energy costs and increased regulation in recent years have caused industrialists to investigate how to apply ‘energy efficiency’ to their manufacturing operations. As well as reducing operating costs, the benefits of a ‘green’ image as a market differentiator are beginning to be realised. The literature describes the successful implementation of a variety of approaches to energy reduction, with particular focus on energy intensive industries (such as foundries) and on improvements to building services (such as lighting). However, a systematic approach to applying sustainable practices to the manufacturing processes involved in the production of high value products, such as aircraft, is noticeably absent. This paper describes how a number of sustainable manufacturing approaches have been combined, enhanced and applied to the shop floor of a manufacturing facility in the UK responsible for the production of large component assemblies for the aerospace industry.
Technical Paper

Ranking of Thick Ice Shapes Based on Numerical Simulation for Certification

2019-06-10
2019-01-1944
The objective of this paper is to present a numerical method to rank thick ice shapes for aircraft by comparing the ice accretion effects for different icing scenarios in order to determine the more critical ice shape. This ranking allows limiting the demonstration of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft in iced condition during certification to a reduced number of ice shapes. The usage of this numerical method gives more flexibility to the determination of the critical ice shapes, as it is not dependent of the availability of physical test vehicles and/or facilities. The simulation strategy is built on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and is validated based on a representative test case, both in terms of aircraft geometry and ice shapes. Validation against existing experimental results shows the method exhibits an adequate level of reliability for the ranking of thick ice shapes.
Journal Article

Qualification and Full-Scale Test of the Airbus A400M Barrier Net

2011-10-18
2011-01-2519
AmSafe®, Airbus and IABG were the first in decades to undertake an ultimate forward load Full-Scale Test (FST) of a 9 g₁ Barrier Net. Barrier Nets are safety-critical products used during an emergency landing (FAR25.561/CS25.561) to protect passengers and crew. When Airbus Military required an A400M Barrier Net they identified requirements well beyond the "normal" and demanded that payloads from a rigid structure to a frangible be restrained. AmSafe uses non-liner Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technology to analyze their nets and proposed an innovative solution for a new Barrier Net to satisfy these very demanding requirements. Given these new requirements, it was decided to also carry out a Full-Scale Test (FST). This test required the expertise of IABG, a testing facility based in Germany.
Video

Orbital Drilling Machine for One Way Assembly in Hard Materials

2012-03-23
In Aeronautic industry, when we launch a new industrialization for an aircraft sub assembly we always have the same questions in mind for drilling operations, especially when focusing on lean manufacturing. How can we avoid dismantling and deburring parts after drilling operation? Can a drilling centre perform all the tasks needed to deliver a hole ready to install final fastener? How can we decrease down-time of the drilling centre? Can a drilling centre be integrated in a pulse assembly line? How can we improve environmental efficiency of a drilling centre? It is based on these main drivers that AIRBUS has developed, with SPIE and SOS, a new generation of drilling centre dedicated for hard materials such as titanium, and high thicknesses. The first application was for the assembly of the primary structure of A350 engine pylons. The main solution that was implemented meeting several objectives was the development of orbital drilling technology in hard metal stacks.
Technical Paper

Orbital Drilling Machine for One Way Assembly in Hard Materials

2011-10-18
2011-01-2745
In Aeronautic industry, when we launch a new industrialization for an aircraft sub assembly we always have the same questions in mind for drilling operations, especially when focusing on lean manufacturing. How can we avoid dismantling and deburring parts after drilling operation? Can a drilling centre perform all the tasks needed to deliver a hole ready to install final fastener? How can we simplify specific jigs used to maintain parts during drilling operations? How can we decrease down-time of the drilling centre? Can a drilling centre be integrated in a pulse assembly line? How can we improve environmental efficiency of a drilling centre? It is based on these main drivers that AIRBUS has developed, with SPIE and SOS, a new generation of drilling centre dedicated for hard materials such as titanium, and high thicknesses. The first application was for the assembly of the primary structure of A350 engine pylons.
Technical Paper

Orbital Drilling

2011-10-18
2011-01-2533
During mechanical assembly, individual parts are joined by different types of fasteners which are commonly to be installed into tightly tolerated holes. Drilling of widely used modern materials like CFRP and titanium leads to challenges in terms of tool and process development. A significant challenge is one step drilling in assemblies made from mixed material stacks. It results in deviating hole diameters making the additional reaming operation essential.”But also drilling of thick single material stacks imposes difficulties in terms of hole tolerance, chip extraction, heat accumulation and lubrication issues, leading to the necessity of drilling in several steps to achieve the required hole quality and integrity. During orbital drilling the drive spindle rotates eccentrically in addition to tool rotation and feed movement, leading to a circular path of the cutting tool. Orbital drilling can offer advantages compared with conventional drilling and reaming.
Journal Article

Optimization of an Unconventional Environmental Control System Architecture

2011-10-18
2011-01-2691
The Environmental Control System is a relevant element of any conventional or More Electric Aircraft (MEA). It is either the key consumer of pneumatic power or draws a substantial load from the electric power system. The objective of this paper is to present a tool for the design of Environmental Control Systems and to apply it to an unconventional system. The approach is based on a recently proposed methodology, which is improved with respect to flexibility and ease-of-use. Furthermore, modeling and simulation of vapor compression cycles is discussed, which are candidate technological solutions for More Electric Aircraft concepts. A steady-state moving boundary method is presented to model heat exchangers for such applications. Finally, the resulting design environment is applied to optimization of an unconventional ECS architecture and exemplary results are presented.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Automated Airframe Assembly Process on Example of A350 S19 Splice Joint

2019-09-16
2019-01-1882
The paper presents the numerical approach to simulation and optimization of A350 S19 splice assembly process. The main goal is to reduce the number of installed temporary fasteners while preventing the gap between parts from opening during drilling stage. The numerical approach includes computation of residual gaps between parts, optimization of fastener pattern and validation of obtained solution on input data generated on the base of available measurements. The problem is solved with ASRP (Assembly Simulation of Riveting Process) software. The described methodology is applied to the optimization of the robotized assembly process for A350 S19 section.
Journal Article

Optimal Control to Recover a Safe Situation from Low/High-Energy Situation in Approach

2011-10-18
2011-01-2618
The main study illustrated in this paper deals with the computation of commands which allow an aircraft to recover a nominal energy trajectory from a low/high energy state during the approach phase. The commands taken into account in this paper are the slat/flap aerodynamic control surfaces which allow the aircraft to maintain the best lift performance for low velocities during the approach phase. In this study, it is supposed that the aircraft maintains a known vertical trajectory, simplified by a constant ground slope, while no engines and airbrakes are used. A non-linear optimization approach is studied in this paper and two methods are tested: a) Hermite-Simpson, trapezoidal collocation methods, b) Sequential numerical integration method. These different methods are tested and simulation results are given for comparison, with different initial velocities permitting to change the initial energy state.
Technical Paper

On-line Estimation of Longitudinal Flight Parameters

2011-10-18
2011-01-2769
The introduction of Fly-By-Wire (FBW) and the increasing level of automation contribute to improve the safety of civil aircraft significantly. These technological steps permit the development of advanced capabilities for detecting, protecting and optimizing A/C guidance and control. Accordingly, this higher complexity requires extending the availability of aircraft states, some flight parameters becoming key parameters to ensure a good behaviour of the flight control systems. Consequently, the monitoring and consolidation of these signals appear as major issues to achieve the expected autonomy. Two different alternatives occur to get this result. The usual solution consists in introducing many functionally redundant elements (sensors) to enlarge the way the key parameters are measured. This solution corresponds to the classical hardware redundancy, but penalizes the overall system performance in terms of weight, power consumption, space requirements, and extra maintenance needs.
Journal Article

OBIGGS for Fuel System Water Management - Proof of Concept

2011-10-18
2011-01-2793
Fuel on-board dehydration during flight technologies has been modeled and experimentally studied on a laboratory testing setup in normal specific gas flow rates range of 0.0002-0.0010 sec-₁. Natural air evolution, ullage blowing and fuel sparging with dry inert gas have been studied. It has been shown that natural air evolution during aircraft climb provides a significant, substantial, but insufficient dehydration of fuel up to 20% relative. Ullage blowing during cruise leads to a constant, but a slow dehydration of fuel with sufficient column height concentration gradient. Dry inert gas sparging held after the end of the natural air evolution or simultaneously with natural air evolution provides rapid fuel dehydration to the maximum possible values. It potentially may eliminate water release and deposition in fuel to -50°C. It has been found that for proper dehydration, necessary and sufficient volume of dry inert gas to volume of fuel ratio is about 1.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Safety Assessment for the Three Stages of Refinement of the System Development Process in ARP4754A

2011-10-18
2011-01-2548
Model Based Safety techniques have been developed for a number of years, though the models have not been customised to help address the safety considerations/ actions at each refinement level. The work performed in the MISSA Project looked at defining the content of “safety models” for each of the refinement levels. A modelling approach has been defined that provides support for the initial functional hazard analysis, then for the systems architectural definition level and finally for the systems implementation level. The Aircraft functional model is used to apportion qualitative and quantitative requirements, the systems architectural level is used to perform a preliminary systems safety analysis to demonstrate that a system architecture can satisfy qualitative and quantitative requirements.
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