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Technical Paper

Variation in Corrosion Resistance of Trivalent Chromate Coating Depending on Type of Zinc Plating Bath

2006-04-03
2006-01-1671
Trivalent chromate coating is replacing the conventional hexavalent chromate coating applied on zinc plating. Zinc plating uses one of three types of plating baths (zincate, cyanide and chloride) according to the characteristics required of subject parts. It has been recognized that trivalent chromate coating provides different corrosion resistance depending on the type of zinc plating bath used. Zinc plating with chromate coating were analyzed to clarify the cause of the corrosion resistance variation with the type of zinc plating bath. It has been revealed that the chromate coating thickness and the condition of top SiO2 layer vary with the type of zinc plating bath, resulting in corrosion resistance variation.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control Software Specification Using Design Interests Extraction and Model Checking

2012-04-16
2012-01-0960
Automotive control systems such as powertrain control interact with the open physical environment, and from this nature, expensive prototyping is indispensable to capture a deep understanding of the system requirements and to develop the corresponding control software. Model-based development (MBD) has been promoted to improve productivity by virtual prototyping. Even with MBD, systematic validation of the software specification remains as a major challenge and it still depends heavily on individual engineers' skill and knowledge. Though the introduction of graphical software modeling improved the situation, it requires much time to identify the primal functions, so-called “design interests”, from a large complex model where irrelevant components are mixed with, and to validate it properly.
Technical Paper

Toyota New TNGA High-Efficiency Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission Direct Shift-8AT for FWD Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1093
The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
Journal Article

Thermal Analysis of Traction Contact Area Using a Thin-film Temperature Sensor

2013-04-08
2013-01-0368
The purpose of this paper is to construct the thermal analysis model by measuring and estimating the temperature at the traction contact area. For measurement of temperature, we have used a thin-film temperature sensor. For estimation of temperature, we have composed the thermal analysis model. The thin-film temperature sensor was formed on the contact surface using a spattering device. The sensor is constituted of three layers (sensor layer, insulation layer and intermediate layer). Dimensions of the sensor were sufficiently smaller than the traction contact area. The sensor featured high specific pressure capacity and high speed responsiveness. The thermal analysis model was mainly composed of three equations: Carslaw & Jaeger equation, Rashid & Seireg equation and heat transfer equation of shear heating in oil film. The heat transfer equation involved two models (local shear heating model at middle plane, homogeneous shear heating model).
Technical Paper

The application of the damage & fracture material model to crashworthiness evaluations for Aluminum cars.

2003-10-27
2003-01-2776
In an evaluation of crashworthiness for the cars made of aluminum alloys, the evaluation considering fracture phenomenon comes to be needed because conventional aluminum alloys have low fracture strain (10-20%). In case of the development of a B-Pillar made by die cast, if crack occurrence, furthermore, separation of a part can be estimated by using CAE in crashworthiness evaluations, we can reduce the number of prototype makings and the cost of development using expensive dies. Therefore, we performed crashworthiness evaluations by CAE using some sort of a damage & fracture material model. It is known as “Orthotropic damage & fracture model”.
Technical Paper

The New RWD 6 Speed Automatic Transmission for SUV and Truck

2016-04-05
2016-01-1097
Aisin AW (AW) and Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) have developed a new RWD 6 speed automatic transmission, AWR6B45(AC60), suitable for SUV’s and LDT’s in the worldwide market, not only for North America but also for other countries including emerging nations. This 6 speed automatic transmission has achieved low cost, equivalent to AW and TMCs’ current 5 speed automatic transmission, while realizing improvement in both fuel economy and driving performance against current in-house 5-speed automatic transmissions, in addition to satisfying both toughness against various usage and light weight/compactness. They are accomplished by using a compact gear train structure, the latest efficiency improvement technologies, and a high-response, compact hydraulic control system. In addition, the compactness of this 6 speed automatic transmission enables it to replace current 4 speed and 5 speed automatic transmissions for various engine applications.
Technical Paper

Study of Plastic Plating Using Highly Concentrated Ozonized Water Pretreatment

2005-04-11
2005-01-0618
In order to achieve good adhesive properties, typical decorative plastic plating technology uses a chromic acid process that creates an anchor effect. Due to environmental concerns with hexavalent chromium, there is a need to find alternative processes. Pretreatment using highly concentrated ozonized water was investigated as a novel approach to achieving this goal. In the conventional chromic acid process, strong adhesion between plating membranes is achieved by roughing the ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) resin surface by approximately 1 um. On the other hand, the highly concentrated ozonized water process achieves good adhesion with a smooth resin by changing the resin from ABS to ASA (acrylate-styrene-acrylonitrile). It was discovered that the difference in this strength of adhesion was the difference in resin surface strength (existence of deterioration or otherwise).
Technical Paper

Study of Large OSC Materials (Ln2O2SO4) on the Basis of Sulfur Redox Reaction

2009-04-20
2009-01-1071
Three-way catalyst shows high performance under stoichiometric atmosphere. The CeO2-ZrO2 based materials (CZ) are added as a buffer of O2 concentration. To improve the catalyst performance the larger O2 storage capacity (OSC) are needed. Theoretically, the sulfur oxidation-reduction reaction moves oxygen 8 times larger than cerium. We focused on this phenomenon and synthesized Ln2O2SO4 as a new OSC material. The experimental result under model gas shows that the OSC of Ln2O2SO4 is 5 times lager than CZ.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous PM and NOx Reduction System for Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0957
A new after-treatment system called DPNR (Diesel Particulate-NOx Reduction System) has been developed for simultaneous and continuous reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust gas. This system consists of both a new catalytic technology and a new diesel combustion technology which enables rich operating conditions in diesel engines. The catalytic converter for the DPNR has a newly developed porous ceramic structure coated with a NOx storage reduction catalyst. A fresh DPNR catalyst reduced more than 80 % of both PM and NOx. This paper describes the concept and performance of the system in detail. Especially, the details of the PM oxidation mechanism in DPNR are described.
Technical Paper

Silicon Nitride Turbocharger Rotor for High Performance Automotive Engines

1990-02-01
900656
Toyota Motor Corporation has mass-produced turbochargers with silicon nitride ceramic rotors since October, 1989. Those turbochargers have been introduced into Celica and MR-2 which are Toyota sporty-type passenger cars. The designing of ceramic rotor was carried out in order to ensure the strength and durability of the component as well as to obtain the same aerodynamic characteristics as in the metal rotor. A moment of inertia was reduced by 60% using ceramic rotor which improved turbocharger response. The ceramic rotor was joined to metal shaft by new method which compensated problems in both shrink fitting and active brazing methods. High temperature strength of silicon nitride material was improved by controlling the amount of sintering additives and sintering conditions. The ceramic injection moulding was employed to mass-produce rotors with complicated shape, applying optimun binder compositions and moulding conditions.
Technical Paper

ST-Lib: A Library for Specifying and Classifying Model Behaviors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0621
Test and verification procedures are a vital aspect of the development process for embedded control systems in the automotive domain. Formal requirements can be used in automated procedures to check whether simulation or experimental results adhere to design specifications and even to perform automatic test and formal verification of design models; however, developing formal requirements typically requires significant investment of time and effort for control software designers. We propose Signal Template Library (ST-Lib), a uniform modeling language to encapsulate a number of useful signal patterns in a formal requirement language with the goal of facilitating requirement formulation for automotive control applications. ST-Lib consists of basic modules known as signal templates. Informally, these specify a characteristic signal shape and provide numerical parameters to tune the shape.
Technical Paper

Research in Aluminum Matrix Composites for Improvement in Damping Capacity

2005-04-11
2005-01-1389
We have tried to improve damping capacity of an aluminum alloy by means of dispersing ceramic particles (low damping SiC and high damping NdNbO4) of different sizes and volume fractions in the aluminum alloy by powder metallurgy. It is shown that the damping capacity is increased in every case accompanying an increase of Young's modulus. It is also shown that the intrinsic damping capacity of dispersed particles does not play a role in improving the damping capacity. The increase of the damping capacity seems to be attributed to dislocations breakaway, interaction of fine particles and dislocations, and relaxation of interface between ceramic particles and aluminum matrix.
Journal Article

Reaction Mechanism Analysis of Di-Air-Contributions of Hydrocarbons and Intermediates

2012-09-10
2012-01-1744
The details of Di-Air, a new NOx reduction system using continuous short pulse injections of hydrocarbons (HC) in front of a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst, have already been reported. This paper describes further studies into the deNOx mechanism, mainly from the standpoint of the contribution of HC and intermediates. In the process of a preliminary survey regarding HC oxidation behavior at the moment of injection, it was found that HC have unique advantages as a reductant. The addition of HC lead to the reduction or metallization of platinum group metals (PGM) while keeping the overall gas atmosphere in a lean state due to adsorbed HC. This causes local O₂ inhibition and generates reductive intermediate species such as R-NCO. Therefore, the specific benefits of HC were analyzed from the viewpoints of 1) the impact on the PGM state, 2) the characterization of intermediate species, and 3) Di-Air performance compared to other reductants.
Journal Article

PEFC Performance Improvement Methodology for Vehicle Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-1232
For over a decade and a half, Toyota Motor Corporation has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and is continuing various approaches to enable mass production. This study used new methods to quantitatively observe some of the mass transfer phenomena in the reaction field, such as oxygen transport, water drainage, and electronic conductivity. The obtained results are applicable to the design requirements of ideal reaction fields, and have the potential to assist to reduce the size of the fuel cell.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Induction System of an Internal Combustion Engine -Multi-Dimensional Calculation Using a New Method of Lines

1990-02-01
900255
Multi-dimensional code has been developed to simulate the effect of geometry on mass flow rate and flow pattern in the induction system of an internal combustion engine. The unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates are solved by a new method of lines. In the method of lines, the governing equations are spatially discretized by a finite difference approximation and the resulting system of ordinary differential equations is integrated. As a time integration scheme, we newly propose to use the rational Runge-Kutta scheme in order to efficiently simulate the flows in the induction system. The domain-decomposition technique is introduced so that body-fitted structured grid can be easily generated for such complex geometry as a real intake port shape. The present code is applied to 2 and 3 dimensional steady flows in intake port/cylinder assembly with a valve.
Technical Paper

New Frictional Testing Method for Stamping Formability - Development of Dr. STAMP (Direct & Rapid, Surface Tribology Analyzing Method for Press) Method -

2003-10-27
2003-01-2812
Galvannealed steel sheet (GA) is very extensively used for vehicle panels. However ζ-phase (FeZn13) in GA coat causes poor stamping formability. Previously, there were no easy methods to evaluate the influence of ζ-phase on the frictional characteristics other than the X-ray diffraction method. This study will discuss the development of a new testing method: Dr. STAMP Method that is both efficient and convenient with pin-on-disc tester.
Technical Paper

New Drivetrain for Toyota's Flagship Lexus LFA Sports Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-1427
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new drivetrain for their flagship Lexus LFA sports car. Passionate driving experience was pursued at the forefront of development. Superior vehicle performance, handling, and responsiveness that seem to anticipate the driver's intentions are achieved. Special vehicle packaging and component placement are adopted in the LFA in order to realize such performance. The engine, clutch, and front counter gear are positioned at the front of the vehicle, and the transaxle at the rear. The engine and transaxle are connected by a rigid torque tube. The transaxle is an automated manual transmission equipped with an electrohydraulic actuator for controlling both the shift and clutch operations. This actuator enables accurate control of the transmission and extremely quick response to shift paddle operation by the driver. This paper describes a general outline of the drivetrain and each component that has significantly contributed to LFA product appeal.
Journal Article

Narrow-Band Omnidirectional Structural Color

2008-04-14
2008-01-1049
Automotive pigments consist of absorptive materials which absorb most of the wavelengths of light in the visible range (400-800 nm) except one particular range which gets reflected and seen as color. This coloring mechanism based on light absorption due to their molecular structure generally reflects a broader range of wavelength with a moderate reflectivity (50-60%). However in nature we find many magnificent colors in insects, butterflies, birds and fishes. These colors in nature are not based on the abortive pigments, but on the nanoscopic regular structures that interfere light reflected from those periodic sites. Since animals contain no solid metals, to produce metallic-like reflections they also rely on interference of light.[1] Most common and well-known form of animal reflector is the multilayer type where alternating high and low refractive index layers are formed. Such nanostructure assembly can reflect light up to 100%.
Technical Paper

Method of Improving Side Impact Protection Performance by Induction Hardening of Body Reinforcement Compatibility Between Safety and Weight Reduction in Body Engineering

1998-02-23
980550
A technique for induction-hardening local portions of vehicle body reinforcements press-formed of thin sheet steel has been developed, with the aim of ensuring occupant safety in a side collision. This technique for increasing the tensile strength of sheet steel was practically applied to the front floor cross member and center pillar reinforcement. Owing to this method, the weight of body reinforcements can be decreased. New induction-hardening systems have also been developed for the present technique. One is an apparatus which allows induction-hardening a part with a three-dimensionally curved surface. Another is a straightening quench technique used to retain the same dimensional accuracy as the original press-formed part.
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