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Journal Article

The Effects of Surface Texture on Fretting Fatigue between Fastener and Aluminum Structure

Multi-fastener lap joints are vulnerable to fretting fatigue when they are subjected to repeated loading. In general the fretting fatigue condition leads to degraded properties of metallic structures due to the presence of the surface stress concentration resulting at the sites of fretting pits. In many cases, fretting can result in premature structure failures therefore a series of counter measures are frequently taken to minimize fretting especially at the fastener holes. One of major factors that affect the fretting phenomena between the fastener and fastener hole is the surface condition of the fasteners. In this study, the influences of the surface texture and the surface plating of the fastener on the joint life were investigated by conducting double lap shear fatigue testing. It has been found that the joint fretting fatigue resistance is very sensitive to the surface texture of the fastener and as the surface roughness of the fastener is reduced the joint life increases.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Alternatives to Electrodeposited Cadmium for Threaded Fasteners Applications (III)

Since 2005, Alcoa Fastening Systems (AFS) and Lockheed Martin have been partnering to identify a Cadmium (Cd) plating replacement for threaded fasteners. Previously reported Phase I, II and III studies resulted in alternative coatings that indicated promise as suitable plating materials. Phase IV and V studies continued the program by testing two different fasteners (NAS1580 and NAS4452) manufactured in AFS facilities. Testing included plating material characterization such as coating thickness, torque-tension relationships, locking and breakaway torque measurements, salt spray (fog) corrosion, stress corrosion, and push-in and interference properties. Additionally, mechanical properties of the plated fasteners were tested (tensile, double shear, durability, and fatigue). Candidates included two electroplated zinc-nickel coating systems (Zn-Ni and Zn-Ni2) and an electrodeposited aluminum coating (AI).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Alternatives to Electrodeposited Cadmium for Threaded Fastener Applications (II)

Cadmium electroplating is coming under increasing pressure due to both environmental and worker safety issues. Since 2005, Alcoa Fastening Systems (AFS) and Lockheed Martin have been conducting a collaborative research program to identify the most appropriate fastener coating materials for a Cadmium (Cd) plating replacement. Four candidate coatings were selected for the initial Phase I evaluation: electroless nickel (EN), electroless nickel composite (EN-PTFE), electrodeposited surface mineralization based zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni), and electroplated aluminum (Al). The Phase I testing results indicated that the Zn-Ni and Al coatings were the best of the four candidates for Cd replacement. However, it is hard to conduct direct comparisons with different coating thicknesses, surface treatments, and lubrication among various Cd alternatives. Thus, further evaluation with more careful control of these parameters would be necessary.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Alternatives to Electrodeposited Cadmium for Threaded Fastener Applications

Cadmium (Cd) plating offers good corrosion resistance, lubricity, solderability, adhesion, and ductility, as well as consistent torque-tension and uniform thickness on components with complex geometries. However, the intrinsic Environmental, Health, and Safety issues associated with Cd have driven many users to seek alternatives. Currently, various Cd replacement teams/programs such as the Joint Group on Pollution Prevention (JG-PP)/Boeing, the Joint Cadmium Alternatives Team (JCAT), the Canadian Cadmium Replacement Program (CCRP), and the REFOCUS Program (AEA Technology, European) have been investigating alternatives to Cd plating. Some of the current coatings being considered in the aerospace industry include Zn-Ni alloy plating, electrodeposited aluminum, electroless nickel, nickel composite, and molten salt aluminum manganese (Al-Mn). Each option has its own particular characteristics; however, most experiments have been conducted on aerospace structural panels or components.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fastener Coating and Shear Strength on Joint Lap Shear Strength

In aerospace fastener industry, all materials used or being considered for fastener applications must meet specified minimum shear strength values tested via single-shear test and double-shear test. However, shear testing results are not as precise as tension and compression testing due to the introduction of friction and bending forces in the testing process, resulting in the difficulty in obtaining accurate test data. Previous study showed the various effects of coating tribology on fastener single and double shear strength. Experimental results, statistical analysis and finite element analysis all confirmed that surface tribology could significantly affect the shear strength test results. Comparing to un-coated or bare fasteners, confirmed that fasteners from the same lot exhibited significantly lower shear strength values after coating. This effect is well known in the Aerospace fastener industry.