Utilizing Intake-Air Oxygen-Enrichment Technology to Reduce Cold-Phase Emissions
Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, seriously considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engine-out and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) “Off-Cycle” test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively.