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Technical Paper

“Fair” Comparison of Powertrain Configurations for Plug-In Hybrid Operation Using Global Optimization

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) use electric energy from the grid rather than fuel energy for most short trips, therefore drastically reducing fuel consumption. Different configurations can be used for PHEVs. In this study, the parallel pre-transmission, series, and power-split configurations were compared by using global optimization. The latter allows a fair comparison among different powertrains. Each vehicle was operated optimally to ensure that the results would not be biased by non-optimally tuned or designed controllers. All vehicles were sized to have a similar all-electric range (AER), performance, and towing capacity. Several driving cycles and distances were used. The advantages of each powertrain are discussed.
Journal Article

X-ray Imaging of Cavitation in Diesel Injectors

Cavitation plays a significant role in high pressure diesel injectors. However, cavitation is difficult to measure under realistic conditions. X-ray phase contrast imaging has been used in the past to study the internal geometry of fuel injectors and the structure of diesel sprays. In this paper we extend the technique to make in-situ measurements of cavitation inside unmodified diesel injectors at pressures of up to 1200 bar through the steel nozzle wall. A cerium contrast agent was added to a diesel surrogate, and the changes in x-ray intensity caused by changes in the fluid density due to cavitation were measured. Without the need to modify the injector for optical access, realistic injection and ambient pressures can be obtained and the effects of realistic nozzle geometries can be investigated. A range of single and multi-hole injectors were studied, both sharp-edged and hydro-ground. Cavitation was observed to increase with higher rail pressures.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Radiography and CFD Studies of the Spray G Injector

The salient features of modern gasoline direct injection include cavitation, flash boiling, and plume/plume interaction, depending on the operating conditions. These complex phenomena make the prediction of the spray behavior particularly difficult. The present investigation combines mass-based experimental diagnostics with an advanced, in-house modeling capability in order to provide a multi-faceted study of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector. First, x-ray tomography is used to distinguish the actual injector geometry from the nominal geometry used in past works. The actual geometry is used as the basis of multidimensional CFD simulations which are compared to x-ray radiography measurements for validation under cold conditions. The influence of nozzle diameter and corner radius are of particular interest. Next, the model is used to simulate flash-boiling conditions, in order to understand how the cold flow behavior corresponds to flashing performance.
Journal Article

X-Ray Radiography Measurements of the Thermal Energy in Spark Ignition Plasma at Variable Ambient Conditions

The sparking behavior in an internal combustion engine affects the fuel efficiency, engine-out emissions, and general drivability of a vehicle. As emissions regulations become progressively stringent, combustion strategies, including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn, and turbocharging are receiving increasing attention as models of higher efficiency advanced combustion engines with reduced emissions levels. Because these new strategies affect the working environment of the spark plug, ongoing research strives to understand the influence of external factors on the spark ignition process. Due to the short time and length scales involved and the harsh environment, experimental quantification of the deposited energy from the sparking event is difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present the results of x-ray radiography measurements of spark ignition plasma generated by a conventional spark plug.
Technical Paper

What FutureCar MPG Levels and Technology Will be Necessary?

The potential peaking of world conventional oil production and the possible imperative to reduce carbon emissions will put great pressure on vehicle manufacturers to produce more efficient vehicles, on vehicle buyers to seek them out in the marketplace, and on energy suppliers to develop new fuels and delivery systems. Four cases for stabilizing or reducing light vehicle fuel use, oil use, and/or carbon emissions over the next 50 years are presented. Case 1 - Improve mpg so that the fuel use in 2020 is stabilized for the next 30 years. Case 2 - Improve mpg so that by 2030 the fuel use is reduced to the 2000 level and is reduced further in subsequent years. Case 3 - Case 1 plus 50% ethanol use and 50% low-carbon fuel cell vehicles by 2050. Case 4 - Case 2 plus 50% ethanol use and 50% low-carbon fuel cell vehicles by 2050. The mpg targets for new cars and light trucks require that significant advances be made in developing cost-effective and very efficient vehicle technologies.
Journal Article

Well-to-Wheels Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants of Dimethyl Ether from Natural Gas and Renewable Feedstocks in Comparison with Petroleum Gasoline and Diesel in the United States and Europe

Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
Journal Article

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of the Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Use of Vehicles with Gasoline Compression Ignition Engines on Low Octane Gasoline-Like Fuel

Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines using a low octane gasoline-like fuel (LOF) have good potential to achieve lower NOx and lower particulate matter emissions with higher fuel efficiency compared to the modern diesel compression ignition (CI) engines. In this work, we conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of the potential LOF GCI vehicle technology. A detailed linear programming (LP) model of the US Petroleum Administration for Defense District Region (PADD) III refinery system - which produces more than 50% of the US refined products - is modified to simulate the production of the LOF in petroleum refineries and provide product-specific energy efficiencies. Results show that the introduction of the LOF production in refineries reduces the throughput of the catalytic reforming unit and thus increases the refinery profit margins.
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced SUV Fuel Cell Vehicles

Fuel cell vehicles are currently undergoing extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. A complete well-to-wheels evaluation is helpful when considering the introduction of advanced vehicles that could use a new fuel, such as hydrogen. Several modeling tools developed by Argonne National Laboratory were used to evaluate the impact of several new vehicle configurations. A transient vehicle simulation software code, PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit), was used with a transient fuel cell model derived from GCTool (General Computational Toolkit); and GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation) was employed in estimating well-to-tank performances. This paper compares the well-to-wheels impacts of several advanced SUVs, including conventional, parallel and series hybrid-electric and fuel cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

Variable Air Composition with Polymer Membrane - A New Low Emissions Tool

Air can be enriched with oxygen and/or nitrogen by selective permeation through a nonporous polymer membrane; this concept offers numerous potential benefits for piston engines. The use of oxygen-enriched intake air can significantly reduce exhaust emissions (except NOx), improve power density, lessen ignition delay, and allow the use of lower-grade fuels. The use of nitrogen-enriched air as a diluent can lessen NOx emissions and may be considered an alternative to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Nitrogen-enriched air can also be used to generate a monatomic-nitrogen stream, with nonthermal plasma, to treat exhaust NOx. With such synergistic use of variable air composition from an on-board polymer membrane, many emissions problems can be solved effectively. This paper presents an overview of different applications of air separation membranes for diesel and spark-ignition engines. Membrane characteristics and operating requirements are examined for use in automotive engines.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Line-Haul Class 8 Combination Truck

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instrumented and tested a line-haul Class 8 tractor trailer on a 4-wheel-drive heavy-duty chassis dynamometer. A vehicle model was then developed in the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), Argonne National Laboratory's vehicle simulation tool, using the truck technical specifications and the recorded data, which included the Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) and Controller Area Network (CAN) signals. In this paper, we describe the test scenarios and the analysis performed on the data. We then present the vehicle model and assumptions. Finally, we compare the test and simulation data, including fuel consumption and component signals, as well as the main challenges specific to heavy-duty vehicle testing and simulation.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Validation Process of a HEV System Analysis Model: PSAT

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine two sources of energy and offer a wide variety of component and drivetrain configurations. However, optimizing the blending of these two energy sources is complex. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) working with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), maintains hybrid vehicle simulation software, the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). PSAT allows users to choose the best configuration and to optimize the control strategy in simulations. The importance of component models and the complexity involved in setting up optimized control laws require validation of the models and control strategies developed in PSAT. In this paper, we first describe our capability to validate each component model with an actual component test, using test stand facilities. Once each component model has been validated, ANL can perform tests on a whole HEV by using a chassis dynamometer.
Journal Article

Validating Volt PHEV Model with Dynamometer Test Data Using Autonomie

The first commercially available Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in December 2010. The Volt's powertrain architecture provides four modes of operation, including two that are unique and maximize the Volt's efficiency and performance. The electric transaxle has been specially designed to enable patented operating modes both to improve the electric driving range when operating as a battery electric vehicle and to reduce fuel consumption when extending the range by operating with an internal combustion engine (ICE). However, details on the vehicle control strategy are not widely available because the supervisory control algorithm is proprietary. Since it is not possible to analyze the control without vehicle test data obtained from a well-designed Design-of-Experiment (DoE), a highly instrumented GM Volt, including thermal sensors, was tested at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF).
Technical Paper

Validating Heavy-Duty Vehicle Models Using a Platooning Scenario

Connectivity and automation provide the potential to use information about the environment and future driving to minimize energy consumption. Aerodynamic drag can also be reduced by close-gap platooning using information from vehicle-to-vehicle communications. In order to achieve these goals, the designers of control strategies need to simulate a wide range of driving situations in which vehicles interact with other vehicles and the infrastructure in a closed-loop fashion. RoadRunner is a new model-based system engineering platform based on Autonomie software, which can collectively provide the necessary tools to predict energy consumption for various driving decisions and scenarios such as car-following, free-flow, or eco-approach driving, and thereby can help in developing control algorithms.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Static Autoignition Measurements to Estimate Intake Air Condition Requirements for Compression Ignition in a Multi-Mode Engine - Engine and RCM Experimental Study

A multi-mode operation strategy, wherein an engine operates compression ignited at low load and spark ignited at high load, is an attractive way of achieving better part-load efficiency in a light duty spark ignition (SI) engine. Given the sensitivity of compression ignition operation to in-cylinder conditions, one of the critical requirements in realizing such strategy in practice, is accurate control of intake charge conditions - pressure (P), temperature (T) and equivalence ratio (φ), in order to achieve stable combustion and enable rapid mode-switches. This paper presents the first of a two part study, correlating ignition delay data for five RON98 gasoline blends measured under engine-relevant operating conditions in a rapid compression machine (RCM), to the cylinder conditions obtained from a modern SI engine operated in compression ignition mode.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Static Autoignition Measurements to Estimate Intake Air Condition Requirements for Compression Ignition in a Multi-Mode Engine - Application of Chemical Kinetic Modeling

A multi-mode operation strategy, wherein an engine operates compression ignited at low load and spark-ignited at high load, is an attractive way to achieve better part-load efficiency in light duty, spark-ignition (SI) engines, while maintaining robust operation and control across the operating map. Given the sensitivity of compression ignition operation to in-cylinder conditions, one of the critical requirements in realizing such a strategy in practice is accurate control of intake charge conditions - pressure, temperature, as well as fuel loading, to achieve stable combustion and enable rapid mode-switches. A reliable way of characterizing fuels under such operating schemes is key.
Technical Paper

Using a DNS Framework to Test a Splashed Mass Sub-Model for Lagrangian Spray Simulations

Numerical modeling of fuel injection in internal combustion engines in a Lagrangian framework requires the use of a spray-wall interaction sub-model to correctly assess the effects associated with spray impingement. The spray impingement dynamics may influence the air-fuel mixing and result in increased hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. One component of a spray-wall interaction model is the splashed mass fraction, i.e. the amount of mass that is ejected upon impingement. Many existing models are based on relatively large droplets (mm size), while diesel and gasoline sprays are expected to be of micron size before splashing under high pressure conditions. It is challenging to experimentally distinguish pre- from post-impinged spray droplets, leading to difficulty in model validation.
Technical Paper

Using Modeling and Simulation to Support Future Medium and Heavy Duty Regulations

Other than in Japan, medium and heavy duty vehicles (MHDVs) are not regulated despite accounting for a significant portion of the fuel consumed (about 26% in the US in 2008). Government agencies worldwide are currently evaluating options to address that issue. Due to the large number of vehicle applications, some of them being “one of a kind”, vehicle modelling and simulation offers an attractive solution to medium and heavy duty regulations. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of vehicle simulation to support regulations.
Technical Paper

Understanding Fuel Stratification Effects on Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion and Emissions Behaviors

Fuel stratification effects on the combustion and emissions behaviors for partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion of a high reactivity gasoline (research octane number of 80) was investigated using the third generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen3 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The PPCI combustion mode was achieved through a double injection strategy. The extent of in-cylinder fuel stratification was tailored by varying the start of second fuel injection timing (SOIsecond) while the first fuel injection event was held constant and occurred during the intake stroke. Based on the experimental results, three combustion characteristic zones were identified in terms of the SOIsecond - CA50 (crank angle at 50% cumulative heat release) relationship: (I) no response zone (HCCI-like combustion); (II) negative CA50 slope zone: (early PPCI mode); and (III) positive CA50 slope zone (late PPCI mode).
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.