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Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
Technical Paper

GDi Skew-Angled Nozzle Flow and Near-Field Spray Analysis using Optical and X-Ray Imaging and VOF-LES Computational Fluid Dynamics

Improvement of spray atomization and penetration characteristics of the gasoline direct-injection (GDi ) multi-hole injector is a critical component of the GDi combustion developments, especially in the context of engine down-sizing and turbo-charging trend that is adopted in order to achieve the European target CO₂, US CAFE, and concomitant stringent emissions standards. Significant R&D efforts are directed towards optimization of the nozzle designs, in order to improve the GDi multi-hole spray characteristics. This publication reports VOF-LES analyses of GDi single-hole skew-angled nozzles, with β=30° skew (bend) angle and different nozzle geometries. The objective is to extend previous works to include the effect of nozzle-hole skew angle on the nozzle flow and spray primary breakup. VOF-LES simulations of a single nozzle-hole of a purpose-designed GDi multi-hole seat geometry, with three identical nozzle-holes per 120° seat segment, are performed.
Technical Paper

Development Process of Shock Waves by Supersonic Spray

A numerical simulation of shock wave generation by high-pressure and high-speed spray jet has been conducted to compare to the experimental results obtained by X-ray radiographic technique. Using the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method and the stochastic particle techniques to account for fuel injections and droplet collisions, supersonic-spray-induced shock waves are successfully simulated. Similar to the experimental condition, a non-evaporating diesel spray in a chamber filled with inert gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) at 1 atm pressure under room temperature (30° C) is simulated. To simulate the needle lift effect in the single-hole diesel injector, various injection-rate profiles were employed. In addition, the effects of discharge coefficients, with Cd ranging from 0.8 to 1.0, were also considered to simulate the shock generation processes in the leading spray front.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Internal flow and Spray of Multihole DI Gasoline Spray using X-ray Imaging and CFD

Multi-hole DI injectors are being adopted in the advanced downsized DISI ICE powertrain in the automotive industry worldwide because of their robustness and cost-performance. Although their injector design and spray resembles those of DI diesel injectors, there are many basic but distinct differences due to different injection pressure and fuel properties, the sac design, lower L/D aspect ratios in the nozzle hole, closer spray-to-spray angle and hense interactions. This paper used Phase-Contrast X ray techniques to visualize the spray near a 3-hole DI gasoline research model injector exit and compared to the visible light visualization and the internal flow predictions using with multi-dimensional multi-phase CFD simulations. The results show that strong interactions of the vortex strings, cavitation, and turbulence in and near the nozzles make the multi-phase turbulent flow very complicated and dominate the near nozzle breakup mechanisms quite unlike those of diesel injections.