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Technical Paper

What FutureCar MPG Levels and Technology Will be Necessary?

The potential peaking of world conventional oil production and the possible imperative to reduce carbon emissions will put great pressure on vehicle manufacturers to produce more efficient vehicles, on vehicle buyers to seek them out in the marketplace, and on energy suppliers to develop new fuels and delivery systems. Four cases for stabilizing or reducing light vehicle fuel use, oil use, and/or carbon emissions over the next 50 years are presented. Case 1 - Improve mpg so that the fuel use in 2020 is stabilized for the next 30 years. Case 2 - Improve mpg so that by 2030 the fuel use is reduced to the 2000 level and is reduced further in subsequent years. Case 3 - Case 1 plus 50% ethanol use and 50% low-carbon fuel cell vehicles by 2050. Case 4 - Case 2 plus 50% ethanol use and 50% low-carbon fuel cell vehicles by 2050. The mpg targets for new cars and light trucks require that significant advances be made in developing cost-effective and very efficient vehicle technologies.
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced SUV Fuel Cell Vehicles

Fuel cell vehicles are currently undergoing extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. A complete well-to-wheels evaluation is helpful when considering the introduction of advanced vehicles that could use a new fuel, such as hydrogen. Several modeling tools developed by Argonne National Laboratory were used to evaluate the impact of several new vehicle configurations. A transient vehicle simulation software code, PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit), was used with a transient fuel cell model derived from GCTool (General Computational Toolkit); and GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation) was employed in estimating well-to-tank performances. This paper compares the well-to-wheels impacts of several advanced SUVs, including conventional, parallel and series hybrid-electric and fuel cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Line-Haul Class 8 Combination Truck

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instrumented and tested a line-haul Class 8 tractor trailer on a 4-wheel-drive heavy-duty chassis dynamometer. A vehicle model was then developed in the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), Argonne National Laboratory's vehicle simulation tool, using the truck technical specifications and the recorded data, which included the Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) and Controller Area Network (CAN) signals. In this paper, we describe the test scenarios and the analysis performed on the data. We then present the vehicle model and assumptions. Finally, we compare the test and simulation data, including fuel consumption and component signals, as well as the main challenges specific to heavy-duty vehicle testing and simulation.
Technical Paper

Validation Process of a HEV System Analysis Model: PSAT

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine two sources of energy and offer a wide variety of component and drivetrain configurations. However, optimizing the blending of these two energy sources is complex. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) working with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), maintains hybrid vehicle simulation software, the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). PSAT allows users to choose the best configuration and to optimize the control strategy in simulations. The importance of component models and the complexity involved in setting up optimized control laws require validation of the models and control strategies developed in PSAT. In this paper, we first describe our capability to validate each component model with an actual component test, using test stand facilities. Once each component model has been validated, ANL can perform tests on a whole HEV by using a chassis dynamometer.
Journal Article

Validating Volt PHEV Model with Dynamometer Test Data Using Autonomie

The first commercially available Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in December 2010. The Volt's powertrain architecture provides four modes of operation, including two that are unique and maximize the Volt's efficiency and performance. The electric transaxle has been specially designed to enable patented operating modes both to improve the electric driving range when operating as a battery electric vehicle and to reduce fuel consumption when extending the range by operating with an internal combustion engine (ICE). However, details on the vehicle control strategy are not widely available because the supervisory control algorithm is proprietary. Since it is not possible to analyze the control without vehicle test data obtained from a well-designed Design-of-Experiment (DoE), a highly instrumented GM Volt, including thermal sensors, was tested at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF).
Technical Paper

US National Laboratory R&D Programs in Support of Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Batteries

The successful commercialization of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) can provide significant benefits by reducing the United States' growing dependence on petroleum fuels for transportation; decreasing polluting and greenhouse gas emissions; and facilitating a long-term transition to sustainable renewable energy sources. Recognizing these benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports an active program of long-range R&D to develop electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies and to accelerate their commercialization. The DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) supports several innovative R&D programs, conducted in partnership with DOE's national laboratories, industry, other government agencies, universities, and small businesses. The Office has two key R&D cooperative agreements with the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to develop high-energy batteries for EVs and high-power batteries for HEVs.
Technical Paper

Transient Efficiency, Performance, and Emissions Analysis of a Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Pick-up Truck

Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers. There are several challenges that must be overcome in order to establishing a “hydrogen economy”, including the development of a practical, efficient, and cost-effective power conversion device. Using hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a huge step toward developing a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. This paper summarizes the testing of a hydrogen powered pick-up truck on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle is powered by a port-injected 8-cylinder engine with an integrated supercharger and intercooler. The 4-wheel drive chassis dynamometer is equipped with a hydrogen delivery, metering and safety system as well as hydrogen specific instrumentation. This instrumentation includes numerous sensors, includes a wide-band lambda sensor and an exhaust gas hydrogen analyzer. This analyzer quantifies the amount of unburned hydrogen in the exhaust indicating the completeness of the combustion.
Technical Paper

Total Fuel Cycle Impacts of Advanced Vehicles

Recent advances in fuel-cell technology and low-emission, direct-injection spark-ignition and diesel engines for vehicles could significantly change the transportation vehicle power plant landscape in the next decade or so. This paper is a scoping study that compares total fuel cycle options for providing power to personal transport vehicles. The key question asked is, “How much of the energy from the fuel feedstock is available for motive power?” Emissions of selected criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases are qualitatively discussed. This analysis illustrates the differences among options; it is not intended to be exhaustive. Cases considered are hydrogen fuel from methane and from iso-octane in generic proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell vehicles, methane and iso-octane in spark-ignition (SI) engine vehicles, and diesel fuel (from methane or petroleum) in direct-injection (DI) diesel engine vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Prospects for Hybrid Electric Vehicles, 2005-2020: Results of a Delphi Study

The introduction of Toyota's hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the Prius, in Japan has generated considerable interest in HEV technology among U.S. automotive experts. In a follow-up survey to Argonne National Laboratory's two-stage Delphi Study on electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) during 1994-1996, Argonne researchers gathered the latest opinions of automotive experts on the future “top-selling” HEV attributes and costs. The experts predicted that HEVs would have a spark-ignition gasoline engine as a power plant in 2005 and a fuel cell power plant by 2020. The projected 2020 fuel shares were about equal for gasoline and hydrogen, with methanol a distant third. In 2020, HEVs are predicted to have series-drive, moderate battery-alone range and cost significantly more than conventional vehicles (CVs). The HEV is projected to cost 66% more than a $20,000 CV initially and 33% more by 2020.
Technical Paper

The Prospects for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Second-Stage Results of a Two-Stage Delphi Study

A two-stage Delphi study was conducted to collect information that would enable a technical and economic assessment of electric (EV) and hybrid electric (HEV) vehicles. The first-stage worldwide survey was completed in fall 1994 while the second-stage was completed by summer 1995. The paper reports results from the second round of the survey and the major differences between the two rounds. This second-stage international survey obtained information from 93 expert respondents from the automotive technology field. The second stage response provided the following key results. EVs will penetrate the market first followed by internal combustion engine powered HEVs while gas turbine and fuel cell powered HEVs will not have any significant penetration until after 2020. By 2020 EVs and internal combustion engine powered HEVs are projected to have approximately a 15% share of the new vehicle market.
Technical Paper

The New PNGV System Analysis Toolkit PSAT V4.1 - Evolution and Improvement

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), working with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), maintains hybrid vehicle simulation software, the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). PSAT, originally proprietary, has been used by both DOE and the “Big Three” as a modeling tool. The number of PSAT users has increased recently because 15 universities participating in the 2001 FutureTruck competition were given the software for their use. PSAT allows companies to look at new types of vehicles (hybrids) and choose the best configuration according to customer expectations within a minimum of time. PSAT, a forward-looking model, allows the user to simulate a large number of different configurations (conventional, series, parallel, and power split). PSAT is well suited for development of control strategies; by using accurate dynamics component models as its code, PSAT can be implemented directly and tested at the bench scale or in a vehicle.
Journal Article

The Measured Impact of Vehicle Mass on Road Load Forces and Energy Consumption for a BEV, HEV, and ICE Vehicle

The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy initiated a study that conducted coastdown testing and chassis dynamometer testing of three vehicles, each at multiple test weights, in an effort to determine the impact of a vehicle's mass on road load force and energy consumption. The testing and analysis also investigated the sensitivity of the vehicle's powertrain architecture (i.e., conventional internal combustion powertrain, hybrid electric, or all-electric) on the magnitude of the impact of vehicle mass. The three vehicles used in testing are a 2012 Ford Fusion V6, a 2012 Ford Fusion Hybrid, and a 2011 Nissan Leaf. Testing included coastdown testing on a test track to determine the drag forces and road load at each test weight for each vehicle. Many quality measures were used to ensure only mass variations impact the road load measurements.
Technical Paper

The Cooperative Automotive Research for Advanced Technology Program (CARAT): Accelerating the Commercialization of Innovative Technology

The Cooperative Automotive Research for Advanced Technology (CARAT) program is designed to accelerate the commercialization of innovative technologies that will overcome barriers to achieving the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles Program. Aimed at harnessing the creativity and capabilities of American small businesses and colleges and universities, this unique technology R&D program seeks to develop and bring advanced technologies into use in production vehicles at a faster rate. CARAT's focus is developing and commercializing technology that overcomes key technical barriers preventing the production of vehicles with ultra-high fuel efficiency. CARAT begins with technologies that already have a firm technical basis and, through a unique three-stage process, ends with fully validated technologies ready for mass production. The program is open to all U.S. entrepreneurs and small businesses, colleges, and universities.
Technical Paper

Testing and Analysis of Three Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Current-production hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have shown a measurable improvement in fuel economy, in comparison with conventional vehicles, by using the internal combustion engine in a more efficient operating region, which therefore reduces petroleum consumption. These HEVs operate with a charge-sustaining control strategy. Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) show the potential to further decrease petroleum consumption by operating in a charge-depletion control strategy, in which the energy stored in the battery pack in used during normal driving and recharged through stationary, off-board vehicle charging. This charge-depletion strategy uses more electrical energy to propel the vehicle, which displaces more petroleum. This paper discusses the testing and analysis of a Hymotion Prius PHEV, an Energy CS Prius PHEV, and a Renault Kangoo PHEV.
Technical Paper

Tahoe HEV Model Development in PSAT

Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL), working with the FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership, lead activities in vehicle dynamometer and fleet testing as well as in modeling activities. By using Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF), the General Motors (GM) Tahoe 2-mode was instrumented and tested in the 4-wheel-drive test facility. Measurements included both sensors and controller area network (CAN) messages. In this paper, we describe the vehicle instrumentation as well as the test results. On the basis of the analysis performed, we discuss the vehicle model developed in Argonne’s vehicle simulation tool, the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), and its comparison with test data. Finally, on-road vehicle data, performed by INL, is discussed and compared with the dynamometer results.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

In this study, three batteries were designed and these designs were evaluated in a hybrid vehicle simulation program. The battery designs were based on laboratory tests of 18650 cells for which a Lumped Parameter Battery Model was employed to correlate the cell impedance data. The three battery designs were each tested on three driving cycles, the Federal Urban Driving Schedule, the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and a special cycle developed to test the full power of the vehicle. The results of these simulation tests showed that the battery impedances were low for much of the time because the discharging and charging currents are not maintained at high levels for long periods of time on these cycles. For these conditions, the rates of heat generation in the batteries that were calculated by the simulation programs were low and may not be a serious problem.
Technical Paper

Simplified Methodology for Modeling Cold Temperature Effects on Engine Efficiency for Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

For this work, a methodology of modeling and predicting fuel consumption in a hybrid vehicle as a function of the engine operating temperature has been developed for cold ambient operation (-7°C, 266°K). This methodology requires two steps: 1) development of a temperature dependent engine brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map, and, 2) a data-fitting technique for predicting engine temperature to be used as an input to the temperature dependent BSFC maps. For the first step, response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to generate brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps as a function of the engine thermal state. For the second step, data fitting techniques were also used to fit a simplified lumped capacitance heat transfer model using several experimental datasets. Utilizing these techniques, an analysis of fuel consumption as a function of thermal state across a broad range of engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

Scenario Analysis of Hybrid Class 3-7 Heavy Vehicles

The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, we quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time.
Technical Paper

Safety Considerations for Sodium-Sulfur Batteries for Electric Vehicles

Safety issues and current transport (shipment and b-vehicle use) and environmental regulations applicable to sodium-sulfur batteries for electric vehicles are summarized, and an assessment technique is suggested for evaluating potential hazards relative to commonly accepted risks. It is found that shipment regulations do not directly apply to sodium-sulfur batteries. Disposal hazards need to be quantified and decommissioning procedures need to be developed to comply with the environmental regulations. The risk assessment could be used to help commercialize sodium-sulfur and other advanced batteries in electric vehicles.
Journal Article

Response Surface Energy Modeling of an Electric Vehicle over a Reduced Composite Drive Cycle

Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to develop a predictive model of electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standardized drive cycles. The model is based on measurements from a synthetic composite drive cycle. The synthetic drive cycle is a minimized statistical composite of the standardized urban (UDDS), highway (HWFET), and US06 cycles. The composite synthetic drive cycle is 20 minutes in length thereby reducing testing time of the three standard EPA cycles by over 55%. Vehicle speed and acceleration were used as model inputs for a third order least squared regression model predicting vehicle battery power output as a function of the drive cycle. The approach reduced three cycles and 46 minutes of drive time to a single test of 20 minutes.