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Technical Paper

Model-based optimization methods of combined DPF+SCR Systems

The design of integrated exhaust lines that combine particulate and NOx emission control is a multidimensional optimization problem. The present paper demonstrates the use of an exhaust system simulation platform which is composed of well-established multidimensional mathematical models for the transient thermal and chemical phenomena in DOC, DPF and SCR systems as well as connecting pipe heat transfer effects. The analysis is focused on the European Driving Cycle conditions. Illustrative examples on complete driving cycle simulations with and without forced regeneration events are presented for alternative design approaches. The results illustrate the importance of DOC and DPF heat capacity effects and connecting pipe heat losses on the SCR performance. The possibility of combining DPF and SCR functionality on a single wall-flow substrate is studied.
Technical Paper

Model-based Optimization of Catalyst Zoning in Diesel Particulate Filters

Catalyzed wall-flow particulate filters are increasingly applied in diesel exhaust after-treatment for multiple purposes, including low-temperature catalytic regeneration, CO and hydrocarbon conversion, as well as exothermic heat generation during forced regeneration. In order to optimize Precious Metals usage, it may be advantageous to apply the catalytic coating non-uniformly in the DPF, a technology referred to as “catalyst zoning”. In order to simulate the behavior of such a filter, one has to consider coupled transport-reaction modeling. In this work, a previously developed model is calibrated versus experimental data obtained with full-scale catalyzed filters on the engine dynamometer. In a next step, the model is validated under a variety of operating conditions using engine experiments with zoned filters. The performance of the zoned catalyst is analyzed by examining the transient temperature and species profiles in the inlet and outlet channels.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Intra-Layer Modeling of Soot Density and Permeability in Wall-flow Filters

The objective of this study is to study the soot layer density and permeability in wall-flow diesel particulate filters. Knowledge of the soot morphology as function of the operating conditions is important for the design and on-board control of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). The experimental set-up relies on a specially designed soot loading procedure on single-channel cordierite filters. The experimental conditions simulate real-world as close as possible regarding the filtration velocity, temperature and soot quality, since the sampling is done in real exhaust. By cutting, weighing and imaging the single channel filters it is possible to measure with accuracy the soot layer thickness as deposited under different operating conditions. Combined with pressure drop measurements and modeling, it is further possible to evaluate the soot layer permeability.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for Peak Temperature Limitation in DPF Regeneration Supported by Validated Modeling

One of the main challenges in developing cost-effective diesel particulate filters is to guarantee a thermally safe regeneration under all possible conditions on the road. Uncontrolled regenerations occur when the soot reaction rate is so high that the cooling effect of the incoming exhaust gas is insufficient to keep the temperature below the required limit for material integrity. These conditions occur when the engine switches to idle while the filter is already hot enough to initiate soot oxidation, typically following engine operation at high torque and speed or active filter regeneration. The purpose of this work is to investigate engine management techniques to reduce the reaction rate during typical failure mode regenerations. A purely experimental investigation faces many difficulties, especially regarding measurement accuracy, repeatability in filter soot loading, and repeatability in the regeneration protocol.