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Technical Paper

Virtual Exhaust-Gas Aftertreatment Test Bench - A Contribution to Model-Based Development and Calibration of Engine Control Algorithmsa

2012-04-16
2012-01-0897
Introducing new exhaust-gas aftertreatment concepts at mass production level places exacting demands on the overall development process - from defining process engineering to developing and calibrating appropriate control-unit algorithms. Strategies for operating and controlling exhaust-gas aftertreatment components, such as oxidation and selective catalytic reduction catalysts (DOC and SCR), diesel particulate filters (DPF) and SCR on DPF systems (SCR/DPF), have a major influence on meeting statutory exhaust-emission standards. Therefore it is not only necessary to consider the physical behavior of individual components in the powertrain but also the way in which they interact as the basis for ensuring efficient operation of the overall system.
Technical Paper

Transient Modeling of 3-Way Catalytic Converters

1994-03-01
940934
The modeling of transient phenomena occurring inside an automotive 3-way catalytic converter poses a significant challenge to the emissions control engineer. Since the significant progress that has been observed with steady-state models cannot be directly exploited in this direction, it is necessary to develop a fully transient model and computer code incorporating dynamic behaviour of the three way catalytic converter in a relatively simple and effective way. The Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics (LAT), Aristotle University Thessaloniki, is cooperating with the Engine Direction of FIAT Research Center, in the development of a computer code fulfilling these objectives, within the framework of an EEC Brite EuRam cost shared project. The CRF and LAT modeling approaches, along with the underlying philosophy and experimental work, are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

The Automated Shift Transmission (AST) - Possibilities and Limits in Production-Type Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-0881
State-of-the-art powertrain concepts with automatic transmission must comply with increasingly stringent legislation on emissions and fuel consumption while fulfilling or surpassing customers' expectations as to driveability. In this respect, automated manual transmissions (AMT) and automated shift transmissions (AST) must compete with conventional automatic transmissions (AT) and continuously variable transmissions (CVT). In order to exploit the theoretical advantages of ASTs and put them into practice, complex ECU functions are needed to coordinate engine and transmission. Adaptive control, sophisticated clutch management and an intelligent shifting strategy allow shifting quality and shifting points to be simultaneously optimized to the effect that performance and comfort are increased while fuel consumption is reduced.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop of Particulate Filters and Correlation with the Deposited Soot for Heavy-Duty Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0151
Particulate filters are a widely used emission control device on heavy-duty diesel engines. The accumulation of particulate matter, mostly consisting of soot, inside the filter results in increased filter pressure-drop (backpressure). This increased backpressure has been used by the on-board control systems as trigger for regeneration procedures, which aim to actively oxidize the accumulated soot. However, it is known that passive soot oxidation during normal operation affects the correlation between backpressure and the deposited soot mass in filter. Therefore, the backpressure alone cannot be a reliable trigger for regeneration. In this work we highlight operating conditions with very poor correlation between backpressure and accumulated soot mass in filter and evaluate the possible root causes. Experiments with several heavy-duty diesel engines and particulate filters were conducted on engine test bench.
Technical Paper

Potential of an Innovative, Fully Variable Valvetrain

2004-03-08
2004-01-1393
Under the persistent pressure to further reduce fuel consumption worldwide, it is necessary to advance the processes that influence the efficiency of gasoline engines. In doing so, harnessing the entire potential of fully variable mechanical valve trains will involve targeting efforts on optimizing all design parameters. A new type of valve timing system is used to portray thermodynamic and mechanical as well as electronic aspects of developing fully variable mechanical valve timing and lift systems
Journal Article

Physico-Chemical Modeling of an Integrated SCR on DPF (SCR/DPF) System

2012-04-16
2012-01-1083
A physico-chemical model of a Cu-zeolite SCR/DPF-system involving NH₃ storage and SCR reactions as well as soot oxidation reactions with NO₂ has been developed and validated based on fundamental experimental investigations on synthetic gas test bench. The goal of the work was the quantitative modeling of NOx and NH₃ tailpipe emissions in transient test cycles in order to use the model for concept design analysis and the development of control strategies. Another focus was put on the impact of soot on SCR/DPF systems. In temperature-programmed desorption experiments, soot-loaded SCR/DPF filters showed a higher NH₃ storage capacity compared to soot-free samples. The measured effect was small, but could affect the NH₃ slip in vehicle applications. A bimodal desorption characteristic was measured for different adsorption temperatures and heating rates.
Technical Paper

Physical Modeling of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor: Analytical Approach and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2214
Global warming is a climate phenomenon with world-wide ecological, economic and social impact which calls for strong measures in reducing automotive fuel consumption and thus CO2 emissions. In this regard, turbocharging and the associated designing of the air path of the engine are key technologies in elaborating more efficient and downsized engines. Engine performance simulation or development, parameterization and testing of model-based air path control strategies require adequate performance maps characterizing the working behavior of turbochargers. The working behavior is typically identified on test rig which is expensive in terms of costs and time required. Hence, the objective of the research project “virtual Exhaust Gas Turbocharger” (vEGTC) is an alternative approach which considers a physical modeled vEGTC to allow a founded prediction of efficiency, pressure rise as well as pressure losses of an arbitrary turbocharger with known geometry.
Technical Paper

Optimization Methodologies for DPF Substrate-catalyst Combinations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0291
As the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) technology is nowadays established, research is currently focusing on meeting the emission and durability requirements by proper system design. This paper focuses on the optimum combination between the catalytic coating and substrate structural properties using experimental and simulation methodologies. The application of these methodologies will be illustrated for the case of SiC substrates coated with innovative sol-gel coatings. Coated samples are characterized versus their uncoated counterparts. Multi-dimensional DOC and DPF simulation models are used to study several effects parametrically and increase our understanding on the governing phenomena. The comparative analysis of DOC/DPF systems covers filtration – pressure drop characteristics, CO/HC/NO oxidation performance, effect of washcoat amount and catalyst dispersion on oxidation activity and finally passive regeneration performance.
Technical Paper

NVH Optimization of Driveline with Mathematical Optimization Methods

2013-01-09
2013-26-0089
The Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behaviour of the powertrain, the driveline and the mounting is playing a very important role in the vehicle development process. The method described in this paper presents the coupling of Multi Body Simulation (MBS) with mathematical optimization tools exemplary for a powertrain mounting at a passenger car vehicle. It is shown, how this approach is integrated in the IAV - development process for validation and for optimization, i.e. finding the best solution for reaching the NVH targets. In early stage of development process, torsional vibration models are used to simulate e.g. the decoupling between engine and transmission. To simulate further physical effects, the models must be more and more detailed with a lot of additional parameter. One challenge for valid models is the parameter identification. The process to do this successfully with mathematical methods will be described.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Interactions Of Soot and SCR Reactions in Advanced DPF Technologies with Non-homogeneous Wall Structure

2012-04-16
2012-01-1298
The pressure for compact and efficient deNO systems has led to increased interest of incorporating SCR coatings in the DPF walls. This technology could be very attractive especially if high amounts of washcoat loadings could be impregnated in the DPF porous walls, which is only possible with high porosity filters. To counterbalance the filtration and backpressure drawbacks from such high porosity applications, the layered wall technology has already been proposed towards minimizing soot penetration in the wall and maximizing filtration efficiency. In order to deal with the understanding of the complex interactions in such advanced systems and assist their design optimization, this paper presents an advanced modeling framework and selected results from simulation studies trying to illustrate the governing phenomena affecting deNO performance and passive DPF regeneration in the above combined systems.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Close-Coupled SCR Concepts to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements for Heavy-Duty Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0984
The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system (ATS). Several different aftertreatment architectures and technologies, all based on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are being considered to meet this need. One of these architectures, the close-coupled SCR (ccSCR), was evaluated in this study using two different physics-based, 1D models; the simulations focused on the first 300 seconds of the cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP). The first model, describing a real, EuroVI-compliant engine equipped with series turbochargers, was used to evaluate a ccSCR located either i) immediately downstream of the low-pressure turbine, ii) in between the two turbines, or iii) in a by-pass around the high pressure turbine.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Identification of a Gasoline Common Rail Injection System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0196
The precision of direct fuel injection systems of combustion engines is crucial for the further reduction of emissions and fuel consumption. It is influenced by the dynamic behavior of the fuel system, in particular the injection valves and the common rail pressure. As model based control strategies for the fuel system could substantially improve the dynamic behavior, an accurate model of the common rail injection system for gasoline engines - consisting of the main components high-pressure pump, common rail and injection valves - that could be used for control design is highly desirable. Approaches for developing such a model are presented in this paper. For each key component, two models are derived, which differ in temporal resolution and number of degrees of freedom. Experimental data is used to validate and compare the models. The data was generated on a test bench specifically designed and built for this purpose.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heavy-Duty Engine Thermal Management Technologies to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0731
The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system. Several different engine technologies are being considered to meet this need. In this study, a 1-D engine model was first used to evaluate several individual control strategies capable of increasing the exhaust enthalpy and decreasing the engine-out NOX over the initial portion of the cold start FTP cycle. The additional fuel consumption resulting from these strategies was also quantified with the model. Next, several of those strategies were combined to create a hypothetical aftertreatment warm-up mode for the engine. The model was then used to evaluate potential benefits of an air gap manifold (AGM) and two different turbine by-pass architectures. The detailed geometry of the AGM model was taken into account, having been constructed from a real prototype design.
Technical Paper

Model-based optimization methods of combined DPF+SCR Systems

2007-09-16
2007-24-0098
The design of integrated exhaust lines that combine particulate and NOx emission control is a multidimensional optimization problem. The present paper demonstrates the use of an exhaust system simulation platform which is composed of well-established multidimensional mathematical models for the transient thermal and chemical phenomena in DOC, DPF and SCR systems as well as connecting pipe heat transfer effects. The analysis is focused on the European Driving Cycle conditions. Illustrative examples on complete driving cycle simulations with and without forced regeneration events are presented for alternative design approaches. The results illustrate the importance of DOC and DPF heat capacity effects and connecting pipe heat losses on the SCR performance. The possibility of combining DPF and SCR functionality on a single wall-flow substrate is studied.
Technical Paper

Model-based Optimization of Catalyst Zoning in Diesel Particulate Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0445
Catalyzed wall-flow particulate filters are increasingly applied in diesel exhaust after-treatment for multiple purposes, including low-temperature catalytic regeneration, CO and hydrocarbon conversion, as well as exothermic heat generation during forced regeneration. In order to optimize Precious Metals usage, it may be advantageous to apply the catalytic coating non-uniformly in the DPF, a technology referred to as “catalyst zoning”. In order to simulate the behavior of such a filter, one has to consider coupled transport-reaction modeling. In this work, a previously developed model is calibrated versus experimental data obtained with full-scale catalyzed filters on the engine dynamometer. In a next step, the model is validated under a variety of operating conditions using engine experiments with zoned filters. The performance of the zoned catalyst is analyzed by examining the transient temperature and species profiles in the inlet and outlet channels.
Technical Paper

Model Based Exhaust Aftertreatment System Integration for the Development and Calibration of Ultra-Low Emission Concepts

2014-04-01
2014-01-1554
The development and calibration of exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) systems for the most diverse applications of diesel powertrain concepts requires EAT models, capable of performing concept analysis as well as control and OBD system development and calibration. On the concept side, the choice of an application-specific EAT layout from a wide technology selection is driven by a number of requirements and constraints. These include statutory requirements regarding emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG), technical constraints such as engine-out emissions and packaging, as well as economic parameters such as fuel consumption, and EAT system and system development costs. Fast and efficient execution of the analysis and multi-criteria system optimization can be done by integrating the detailed EAT models into a total system simulation.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Intra-Layer Modeling of Soot Density and Permeability in Wall-flow Filters

2006-04-03
2006-01-0261
The objective of this study is to study the soot layer density and permeability in wall-flow diesel particulate filters. Knowledge of the soot morphology as function of the operating conditions is important for the design and on-board control of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). The experimental set-up relies on a specially designed soot loading procedure on single-channel cordierite filters. The experimental conditions simulate real-world as close as possible regarding the filtration velocity, temperature and soot quality, since the sampling is done in real exhaust. By cutting, weighing and imaging the single channel filters it is possible to measure with accuracy the soot layer thickness as deposited under different operating conditions. Combined with pressure drop measurements and modeling, it is further possible to evaluate the soot layer permeability.
Journal Article

Management of Energy Flow in Complex Commercial Vehicle Powertrains

2012-04-16
2012-01-0724
After the realization of very low exhaust gas emissions and corresponding OBD requirements to fulfill Euro VI and Tier 4 legislation, the focus in heavy-duty powertrain development is on the reduction of fuel consumption and thus CO₂ emissions again. Besides this, the total vehicle operation costs play another major role. A holistic view of the overall powertrain system including the combustion process, exhaust gas aftertreatment, energy recuperation and energy storage is necessary in order to obtain the best possible system for a given application. A management system coordinating the energy flow between the different subsystems while guaranteeing low exhaust emissions plays a major part in operating such complex architectures under optimal conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Ventilation Strategies for SI Cylinder Deactivation Based on a Variable Valve Train

2016-10-17
2016-01-2346
Advanced SI engines for passenger cars often use the cylinder deactivation technology for dethrottling and thus achieving a reduction of fuel consumption. The gas exchange valves of the deactivated cylinders are closed permanently by a zero lift of the cams. The solutions for cylinder deactivation can vary in the kind of gas composition included in the deactivated cylinders: charge air, exhaust gas or vacuum. All these strategies have in common the frequent loss of captured charge mass from cycle to cycle. Their two-stroke compression-expansion cycle additionally intensifies this phenomenon. Thus, a significant decrease of the minimum cylinder pressure can cause an undesired entry of lubricant into the combustion chamber. The idea was to ventilate the generally deactivated cylinders frequently to compensate the loss of captured cylinder charge mass. The task was to keep the minimum cylinder pressure above a certain limit to prevent the piston rings from a failure.
Technical Paper

Holistic Evaluation of CO2 Saving Potentials for New Degrees of Freedom in SI Engine Process Control Based on Physical Simulations

2018-09-10
2018-01-1654
Specific shifting of load points is an important approach in order to reduce the fuel consumption of gasoline engines. A potential measure is cylinder deactivation, which is used as a study example. Currently CO2 savings of new concepts are evaluated by dynamic cycles simulations. The fuel consumption during driving cycles is calculated based on consumption-optimized steady-state engine maps. Discrete load point shifts occur as shifts within maps. For reasons of comfort shifts require neutral torque. The work of deactivated cylinders must be compensated by active cylinders within one working cycle. Due to the larger time constant of the air path the air charge must be increased or decreased in order to deactivate or activate cylinders without affecting the torque. A working-cycle-resolved, continuously variable parameter is prerequisite for process control. Manipulation of ignition timing enables a reduction of efficiency and gained work.
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