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Technical Paper

Study on Correlation of Commercial Vehicle Axle Response with Road Profile for ISO Road Class Categorization and Durability Analysis

2018-04-03
2018-01-1114
Durability analysis is essential for vehicle validation and is carried out with the inputs of different road conditions. The selection of roads for durability analysis is critical and should represent the actual working conditions for the selected vehicle. Generally, the road conditions are subject to change with respect to time. To overcome the above, road profile data is an essential parameter which helps to represent and categorize roads in terms of ISO (International Organization for Standardization) road class. The ISO road classes objectively classify the roads with respect to roughness. This classification holds good by categorizing the signals to the respective road classes rather than different test roads. The road profiles are measured using inertial profiler methodology along with vehicle acceleration and displacement responses, also analyzed and categorized with respect to ISO road class.
Technical Paper

Structural Fatigue Strength Evaluation of Commercial Vehicle Structures by Calculating Damage Due to Road Load Inputs

2013-01-09
2013-26-0139
Evaluation of vehicle structural durability is one of the key requirements in design and development of today's automobiles. Computer simulations are used to estimate vehicle durability to save the cost and time required for building and testing the prototype vehicles. The objective of this work was to find the service life of automotive structures like passenger commercial vehicle (bus) and truck's cabin by calculating cumulative fatigue life for operation under actual road conditions. Stresses in the bus and cabin are derived by means of performing finite element analysis using inertia relief method. Multi body dynamics simulation software ADAMS was used to obtain the load history at the bus and cabin mount locations - using measured load data as input. Strain based fatigue life analysis was carried out in MSC-Fatigue using static stresses from Nastran and extracted force histories from ADAMS. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the physical test results.
Technical Paper

Steering Column Slip Endurance Test & Rig Development

2018-04-03
2018-01-0125
In the emerging commercial vehicle sector, it is very essential to give a product to customer, which is very reliable and less prone to the failures to make the product successful in the market. In order to make it possible, the product is to be validated to replicate the exact field conditions, where it is going to be operated. Lab testing plays a vital role in reproducing the field conditions in order to reduce the lead time in overall product life cycle development process. This paper deals with the design and fabrication of the steering column slip endurance test rig. This rig is capable of generating wear on the steering column splines coating which predominantly leads to failure of steering column. The data acquired from Proving Ground (PG) was analyzed and block cycles were generated with help of data analyzing tools.
Technical Paper

Seat Suspension Based on Variable Absorber System Stiffness for Enhanced Ride Comfort

2006-10-31
2006-01-3480
One of the important methods by which vibrations of a body are reduced is by the use of vibration absorbers or tuned absorbers. This technique involves attaching a spring mass system, called absorber system, to the vibrating body (also called primary body). This paper is a case study dealing with a primary system, here a driver seat, to attenuate its response to disturbance. It has high damped natural frequency compared to the base excitation frequency, which was collected from test data. The paper discusses the variations in absorber and primary system damping ratio, mass ratio variation and usage of variable stiffness. Detailed analysis showed instability in the tuned system due to the large gap between the primary body's damped natural frequency, and the target base excitation frequency. In order to address varying target excitation frequency, an adaptive tuned absorber is suggested.
Technical Paper

Real Road Transient Driving Cycle Simulations in Engine TestBed for Fuel Economy Prediction

2014-10-13
2014-01-2716
The present work describes an approach to predict the vehicle fuel economy by simulating its engine drive cycle on a transient engine dynamometer in an engine testbed. The driving cycles investigated in the current study were generated from the typical experimental data measured on different vehicles ranging from Intermediate Commercial Vehicle (ICV) to Heavy-duty Commercial Vehicle (HCV) in real-world traffic conditions include various cities, highways and village roads in India. Reliability and robustness of the method was studied on various engines with cubic capacity from 3.8 liters to 8 liters using different drive cycles, and the results were discussed. Later, using same measured drive cycles, vehicle fuel economy was predicted by a vehicle simulation tool (AVL CRUISE) and results were compared with experimental data. In addition, engine coolant temperature effect on fuel economy was investigated.
Technical Paper

Multi-Axis Simulation Test for Two-Wheeler Carrier Structure of a Commercial Vehicle Using Accelerated Road Load Data

2017-03-28
2017-01-0218
In the present scenario, delivering right product at the right time is very crucial in automotive sector. Today, most of the OEMs have started to produce FBS (Fully Build Solution) such as oil tankers, mining tippers and two-wheeler carriers based on the market requirements. During product development phase, all automotive components undergo stringent validation protocol either in on-road or laboratory which consumes most of the product development time. This project is focused on developing validation methodology for two-wheeler carrier structure (deck) of a commercial vehicle. For this, road load data were acquired in the typical routes of customers at different loading conditions. Roads were classified as either good or bad based on the axle acceleration. To shorten the test duration, actual road load data was compressed using strain based damage editing techniques. The spectrum and transmissibility of acceleration signals at the decks were analyzed to select a deck for validation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Truck Driver Safety in Various Crash Scenarios

2013-01-09
2013-26-0029
Driver safety is one of the key considerations in truck design and development. Virtual simulation offers opportunities to reduce development time and the number of physical prototypes consumed for design verification and validation for safety parameters. Thus, the application of virtual simulations of crash has become an integral part of the vehicle development process. The continuously emerging scenarios involving challenging test requirements can only be tested by means of virtual simulation techniques. This paper presents simulations that are performed to verify various safety aspects to ensure crashworthiness of the truck cabin. The cabin structure was evaluated for various national/international safety regulations. The FE model and simulation methodology was validated through physical testing and correlated for frontal impact test and roof strength test as per AIS 029/ECE R29. Analysis performed to ensure compliance to upcoming regulation ECE R29 Revision 03 is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Bus Ventilation Methods Using CFD

2013-01-09
2013-26-0043
Non air-conditioned buses constitute a major portion of public transportation facilities in many countries across the world. Inadequate cabin air circulation is a major cause of passenger discomfort in these buses. The aim of this study is to model the air flow pattern inside the passenger compartment of a bus and to establish the effect of solutions such as roof vents in improving the air circulation. RANS based CFD simulations with Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model have been carried out using a commercial CFD solver. The CFD methodology has been verified by comparing results with experimentally validated LES simulation results available in literature. The vehicle model used in this study was the shell structure of a bus with an overall length of 7 m and a wheel base of 3.9 m. Simulations were carried out for a four vent configuration which showed an increase of 131% in the average in-cabin air velocity over the baseline model without any roof-vents.
Technical Paper

Durability Test Sequence and Target Generation for Variants among Commercial Vehicles

2013-09-24
2013-01-2377
Based on customer application and loading condition, each Commercial Vehicle model has an entirely different usage pattern. To perform accurate durability validation, each vehicle model prototype should run on actual customer usage locations and loading conditions for the durability target kilometers. But it is time consuming and not practical. So a statistical approach is followed to generate the accelerated durability test sequence and target on in-house Proving Ground tracks to match the real customer usage for the durability target kilometers. Again a single durability test sequence and target cannot be followed for all vehicle models due to the variability in customer usage. For that, specific durability test sequence and target need to be established for every class of commercial vehicle. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability test sequence and target for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on variants of medium and heavy duty trucks.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis of a Bus by Virtual Test Model (VTM)

2013-09-24
2013-01-2378
In this work, durability of the bus structure is evaluated with a Virtual Test Model (VTM).Full vehicle Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) model of the bus is built, with inclusion of flexibility of the bus structure to capture structural modes. Component mode synthesis method is used for creation of flexible model for use in MBD. Load extraction is done by performing MBD analysis with measured wheel inputs. Modal Superposition Method (MSM) is employed in FE along with these extracted loads for calculation of modal transient dynamic stress response of the structure. e-N based fatigue life is estimated. The estimated fatigue life from the modal superposition method show good correlation with the physical test results done in 6-poster test rig.
Technical Paper

Development of a Specific Durability Test Cycle for a Commercial Vehicle Based on Real Customer Usage

2013-01-09
2013-26-0137
Every class of commercial vehicle has an entirely different usage pattern based on customer application and needs. To perform accurate durability testing, these prototypes should run on real customer usage locations and loading conditions for the target life. However, this is time consuming and not practical, hence resulting in Proving Ground (PG) testing. It is also known that a standard PG durability cycle cannot be valid for every class of vehicle and every application. So a statistical approach was followed to develop an accelerated durability test cycle based on in-house PG test surfaces in order to match the real customer usage to the durability target life. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability Validation test cycles for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on a heavy duty tipper and an intermediate commercial vehicle.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Front Air Suspension for Front Engine Bus with Floor at Entry Plus One Step

2012-09-24
2012-01-1934
The automotive industry is heading towards introduction of newer and newer technology aimed at providing better comforts and value to the end user. The public/ private transport vehicles in urban/rural areas with FE has wide level of acceptance in South East Asian countries. The acceptance of FE buses is mainly because of the ram air cooling of the engine, lesser maintenance, higher fuel efficiency etc whereas rear engine buses with entry plus one step are deprived of these benefits. Hence, we have designed and developed a new Front Engine Semi -Low Floor bus having floor at E+1 step. The primary design challenge was to meet the uniform floor throughout the length of the vehicle. This uniqueness will help in easy ingress and egress of the passengers which helps in reducing the turn around rime of the vehicle. Other challenges includes, meeting the customer requirements in terms of application, load and duty cycle for this new design.
Technical Paper

Data Acquisition and Failure Simulation of Metal Bumper for Heavy Commercial Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-0381
This abstract work describes a method of data acquisition and validation procedure followed for a metal bumper used in commercial vehicle application. Covariance is considered as major phenomenon for repeatable measurements in proving ground data acquisition and it is to be maintained less than 0.05. In this project covariance of data acquisition is analyzed before physical simulation of acquired data. In addition to that, multiple testing conditions like uni-axial and bi-axial testing were carried out to attain the failure. PG data is used for bi-axial vibration test and conventional constant spectrum signal (CSD signal) is used for uni-axial vibration test. Target duration for uni-axial test (Z direction) was arrived using pseudo damage calculation. Strain gauges were installed in failure locations to compare PG data and rig data as well as to calculate strain life. Failures were simulated in bi-axial vibration test.
Technical Paper

Cost effective and Sustainable Alternate Material for Air Brake Tubings (ABT) in Commercial Vehicles

2014-09-30
2014-01-2409
The automotive industry is constantly looking for new alternate material and cost is one of the major driving factors for selecting the right material. ABT is a safety critical part and care has to be taken while selecting the appropriate material. Polyamide (PA12) [1] is the commonly available material which is currently used for ABT applications. Availability and material cost is always a major concern for commercial vehicle industries. This paper presents the development of ABT with an alternative material which has superior heat resistance. Thermoplastic Elastomer Ether Ester Block Copolymer (TEEE) [3] materials were tried in place Polyamide 12 for many good reasons. The newly employed material has better elastic memory and improved resistance to battery acid, paints and solvents. It doesn't require plasticizer for extrusion process because of which it has got excellent long term flexibility and superior kink resistance over a period of time.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Ride in a Heavy Commercial Truck Using Numerical Simulation Methods and Correlation with Test

2013-01-09
2013-26-0151
Demand for a refined Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV) is increasing due to rapid Indian economic growth, while the operating conditions and road infrastructures are still in a transition state of development. The same vehicle model will be operated in a range of operating road conditions like mining sites, construction sites, and highways with varying payloads and speeds by customers that are spread across the country. This variety of road inputs, payloads and speeds has made ride tuning as one of the major challenging process in the development process. This paper describes the attempt to assess ride comfort of HCV with fully suspended cab using numerical based simulation tools and its correlation with physical test results. The best suspension combination was finalized based on vertical and pitch acceleration at Center of Gravity (CG) of the cab. The trend of vertical acceleration obtained from the virtual model was correlated with the same obtained from physical test.
Technical Paper

An Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) based Methodology for Sound Package Optimization for Commercial Vehicles

2013-01-09
2013-26-0104
In recent years NVH has gained a lot of importance in the commercial vehicle industry as it contributes significantly towards user comfort and also towards the quality perception associated with a vehicle. The in-cabin noise of vehicles is critical towards the comfort and usability for the end user and the sound package installed on the vehicle plays a vital role in determining the levels associated with this attribute, especially the high frequency content. The paper discusses a methodology for optimizing the sound package for performance, cost and mass, for a truck. The approach uses a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) based optimization. A virtual SEA model is developed, which is correlated with actual test data. After establishing the correlation, an optimization study is carried out to identify the effectiveness of different materials and material combinations towards in-cabin noise.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Test Facility for Suspension Dampers of Commercial Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1383
In the present scenario, delivering the right product at the right time is very crucial in automotive sector to grab the competitive advantage. In the development stage, validation process devours most of the product development time. This paper focuses on reducing the validation time for damper (shock absorber) variants which is a vital component in commercial vehicle suspension system. New test facility is designed for both performance test and endurance testing of six samples simultaneously. In addition, it provides force trend monitoring during the validation which increases the efficiency of test with an enhanced control system. This new facility is also designed to provide side loading capability for individual dampers in addition to the conventional axial loading. The key parameter during validation is control of damper seal temperature within the range of 70-90°C. A cooling circuit is designed to provide an efficient temperature control by re-circulating cold water.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Model of Air Suspension for Multi Body Simulation of the Commercial Passenger Vehicle

2013-01-09
2013-26-0157
Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) simulation software is used in product development cycle to reduce the lead time to market. These software have standard parametric templates for modeling metallic suspension systems, which can be quickly modified and used in full vehicle models for ride, handling analysis and the durability load predictions. Generally every Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) has unique air suspension arrangement and hence standard template is not available for air suspension modeling in commercial MBD software. Air suspension with self-leveling control mechanism is preferred over metallic suspension in the commercial passenger vehicle like bus for smooth ride comfort. Hence custom made templates for these systems need to be developed for use with MBD software. In this paper, a simplified model of air suspension is presented.
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