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Technical Paper

Ventilation Improvement in a Non-AC Bus

2013-09-24
2013-01-2457
Ventilation is a crucial factor affecting passenger comfort in any vehicle. In a non-air-conditioned bus, ventilation caters to the dual requirement of fresh breathing air as well as providing a cooling sensation by enhanced evaporation of sweat. The higher the velocity of air around the passengers, the greater the cooling effect experienced by them. The ventilation mechanism of a non-air-conditioned bus is primarily the air flow through the windows due to relative motion between the bus and the air around it. This paper describes studies carried out to identify the right combination of open windows which would provide optimum air flow at the passenger head level plane in a bus. A bus model with 12 windows, 6 on each side is used for the study and air velocity at certain points in the head level plane, arising out of different combination of window openings is evaluated using CFD.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Handling Sensitivity Analysis through Numerical Simulation in Commercial Vehicles

2015-09-29
2015-01-2736
Vehicle handling is an important attribute that is directly related to vehicle safety. The rapid development of road infrastructure has resulted in a greater focus on safety and stability. Commercial vehicle stability and safety assumes higher significance because of high center of gravity (CG) and heavier loads. A gamut of parameters influence vehicle handling directly and indirectly. However, it is quite difficult to gauge through physical testing, the extent of each parameter's influence on handling. Therefore, this paper examines vehicle handling by way of a sensitivity analysis through numerical simulation. A prototype vehicle is also instrumented and tested to confirm trends and validate the results of the simulation. An Intermediate Commercial Vehicle (ICV) with Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) of around 13 tonnes is modeled and parameters like wheelbase and tyre stiffness are altered and the effect of these changes on handling parameters (yaw rate, lateral acceleration) is observed.
Technical Paper

System Level Modeling and Optimization of Fuel Cell Powered Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to be used in Commercial Vehicles

2015-01-14
2015-26-0116
Engines of commercial vehicles deliver significant amount of power (more than 25% of propulsive power) for non-propulsive loads such as air-conditioner, alternator, air compressor, radiator fan, steering oil pump, lights etc. Use of these auxiliaries cause sub-optimal utilization of engine power resulting in increased fuel consumption and emissions. A fuel cell powered auxiliary power unit (FC-APU) is proposed to isolate the auxiliaries from the engine. Use of FC-APU shall help improve load carrying capacity, gradeability, fuel efficiency and emissions of the vehicle. This paper describes a mathematical system level model developed using MATLAB-SIMULINK to estimate auxiliary power consumption and simulate FC-APU system. A statistical analysis is performed on the power consumed by various auxiliaries during different duty cycles. The data is used to propose a FC- APU system. Fuel cell is the most expensive component in the system.
Technical Paper

Steering Column Slip Endurance Test & Rig Development

2018-04-03
2018-01-0125
In the emerging commercial vehicle sector, it is very essential to give a product to customer, which is very reliable and less prone to the failures to make the product successful in the market. In order to make it possible, the product is to be validated to replicate the exact field conditions, where it is going to be operated. Lab testing plays a vital role in reproducing the field conditions in order to reduce the lead time in overall product life cycle development process. This paper deals with the design and fabrication of the steering column slip endurance test rig. This rig is capable of generating wear on the steering column splines coating which predominantly leads to failure of steering column. The data acquired from Proving Ground (PG) was analyzed and block cycles were generated with help of data analyzing tools.
Technical Paper

Resolution of Engine Oil Mixing with Power Steering Oil in Steering Pump by Behavioral Study

2015-09-29
2015-01-2720
Steering gear box function is one of the important requirements in heavy vehicles in order to reduce driver fatigue. Improper functioning of steering gear box not only increases the driver fatigue, also concerns the safety of the vehicle. In this present investigation, the engine oil mixing up with steering oil has been identified and steering gear box failure has been observed in the customer vehicle. The root cause of failure has been analyzed. Based on the investigations, in particular design of steering pump has been failed at customer end. The same design of steering pump were segregated and analyzed. Initial pressure mapping study has been conducted. The pressure mapping results revealed that the cavity pressure obstructs the flow of suction pressure. It indicates that obstacle at suction port due to the existence of internal leakage that causes back pressure in the internal cavity of steering pump which sucks engine oil.
Technical Paper

Pass by Noise Reduction on an Intermediate Commercial Vehicle

2018-06-13
2018-01-1535
A major activity of any new vehicle development program, is to meet legal requirements of local markets. Pass by noise (PBN) test is one of the standardized tests and is used to certify new vehicles/variants for their Noise emissions. Certification for noise emissions of commercial vehicles is achieved by measuring external sound levels according to procedures defined by standards such as IS: 3028 for Indian market. Before a physical proto-vehicle is assembled, various systems and subsystems are readily made available by suppliers off the shelf. During final design validation of the vehicle by mule-vehicle testing, PBN target compliance need be assured for all these systems in order to meet overall PBN target. The PBN on an Intermediate commercial vehicle (ICV) migrated to the latest Exhaust emission standard, was the subject of this study. This vehicle emitted PBN greater than accepted threshold.
Technical Paper

Operational Deflection Shapes & Resonance Analysis Using Road Simulator

2019-01-09
2019-26-0323
In today’s competitive world to stay in the commercial vehicle business, technological advancement is vital. Understanding the various operation modes of a vehicle considering the vibration becomes essential for developing a vehicle free from failures. ODS analysis is a method which is used to visualise the vibration pattern of a vehicle when influenced by known external operating forces. ODS provide very useful information for understanding and evaluating the behavior of the vehicle. This paper discusses about the experiments carried out in vehicle. It details the process of data collection at varying frequency input, understanding the modes at various frequencies, identifying the resonant frequency of various components, understanding the comparison between road inputs and resonance frequencies and the transfer of vibration (Transmissibility) from one component to another.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification and Exterior Noise Reduction of a Commercial Vehicle

2017-07-10
2017-28-1936
Exterior noise reduction of a vehicle has become important nowadays in order to meet the stringent pass by noise regulations. First step in this process is the identification of dominant noise sources. There are several noise sources which can contribute to the pass by noise like gearbox, turbocharger, oil sump, exhaust muffler, air intake etc. The dominant noise sources can be identified with the near field noise, component vibration measurements combined with experimental modal analysis. This paper discusses about the noise source identification and exterior noise reduction of a shortest wheel base intermediate commercial vehicle, which is having a 4-cylinder inline diesel engine.
Technical Paper

NVH Investigation and Refinement of Auxiliary Gearbox in a 4×4 Heavy Commercial Vehicle

2013-11-27
2013-01-2850
The present work focusses on the Noise &Vibration refinement carried out on a Heavy commercial vehicle (HCV). In a heavy commercial 4×4 vehicle the existence of an auxiliary gearbox (AGB) is primarily for switching between the multiple drive options. The AGB can become an additional source of noise from the drive train. In this particular vehicle the overall noise from the vehicle has particularly been dominated by the noise from the AGB in specific drive options and conditions as experienced during the subjective assessment of the vehicle initially. First assessment was made by modifying the gear tooth geometry and then the gears were changed from spur to helical as a part of the AGB refinement process. The results of both these assessments were compared. A considerable improvement in the AGB noise was thereby achieved.
Technical Paper

Modal Model Correlation of Commercial Vehicle Frame

2019-01-09
2019-26-0212
Design decisions based on the virtual simulations leads to reduced number of prototype testing. Demonstrated correlation between the computer simulations and experimental test results is vital for designers to confidently take simulation driven design decisions. For the virtual design evaluation of durability, ride, handling and NVH performance, demonstration of correlation of structural dynamic characteristics is critical. Modal correlation between CAE and physical testing validates the stiffness and mass distribution used in the FE model by correlating mode shape and mode frequency in the desired frequency range. The objective of this study is to arrive at a method for establishing modal correlation between CAE and experimental test for a bare frame and thereby enabling evaluation of design iterations in virtual environment to achieve modal targets.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Evaluation of Drivability Attributes in Commercial Vehicle

2015-09-29
2015-01-2767
The emerging trends in commercial vehicle technology have increased the necessity for critical attribute engineering refinements. Drivability is emerging as one of the most significant attributes in the automotive sector. The degree of smoothness in a vehicle's response to the driver's input is termed as drivability. This attribute has to be rigorously refined in order to achieve brand specific vehicle characteristics, which will ensure a thorough product differentiation. In order to calibrate for a positive drivability feel, a methodology for evaluation of drivability is a prerequisite. The scope of this paper is aimed at describing the methodology for subjective and objective evaluation of drivability attributes in commercial vehicles. Drivability is a highly subjectively perceived attribute, therefore a subjective assessment technique to assess drivability attributes and sub-attributes are essential.
Technical Paper

Identification and Reduction of Whistling Noise in Passenger Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2317
The demand for comfort level in commercial vehicles is steadily increasing. Hence, fine-tuned performance parameters and attributes are required to fulfill the expectations from these vehicles. Refinement of noise and vibration without affecting performances of sub-systems and components has become extremely challenging with increasing customer requirements. This paper presents an approach to identify and reduce the high level whistling noise that was perceived in the passenger compartment while the vehicle was accelerated above 50 kmph. Interior noise measurements in static engine run-up condition reveal that the whistling noise is of specific order. Since, whistling noise is related to aerodynamic response of components, engine cooling fan, turbo charger, alternators and compressors were suspected. Using order tracking and near field measurements, HVAC alternator was confirmed as the main cause for whistling noise.
Technical Paper

Field Failure Simulation of a Non-reactive Suspension Tie Rod for Heavy Commercial Vehicle Using a Road Simulator

2019-01-09
2019-26-0350
The suspension system in a vehicle isolates the frame and body from road shocks and vibrations which would otherwise be transferred to the passengers and goods. Heavier goods vehicles use tandem axles at the rear for load carrying. Both the axles should be inter-connected to eliminate overloading of any one axle when this goes over a bump or a ditch. One of the inter-connecting mechanism used is leaf spring with tie rod, bell crank & linkages, when the first rear axle moves over a bump, the linkages equalize the loading on the second rear axle. This paper details about the failure analysis methodology to simulate the tie rod field failure using a six poster road simulator and to identify the root cause of the failure and further corrective actions.
Technical Paper

Failure Analysis and Design Optimisation of Steering Linkage Pivot Shaft of Commercial Vehicle

2015-09-29
2015-01-2726
Commercial vehicles have steering systems with one or more steering links connecting the steering gear box pitman arm and front axle steering arm. In case of twin steer vehicles, intermediate pivot arm is used to transfer the motion proportionately between the two front axles. Intermediate pivot arm is also used in some longer front over-hang vehicles to overcome their packaging constraints and to optimize the mechanical leverage. The pivot shaft is a mechanical part of the intermediate pivot arm assembly upon which pivot arm can swivel in one axis. Steering forces transferred through the drag links generates resultant forces and bending moments on the pivot shaft. In this work, study has been carried out on premature failure of the pivot shaft in city bus application model (Entry + 1 step). Metallurgical analysis of failed part indicated the failure to be due to fatigue. Pivot shaft was tested in rig with similar load conditions in order to replicate the failure.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Structural Strength of Flatbed Trailer for Service Loading Conditions

2013-09-24
2013-01-2368
Commercial vehicle payload depends on the client for which the vehicle fleet owner is operating. Load carriers like flatbed trailer offer the flexibility to be loaded with a large number of light payloads or a few numbers of massive payloads. Such load carriers have to be evaluated for various possibilities of loading patterns that could happen in the market. The objective of this work is to evaluate flatbed trailer for its structural strength for different customer application cases, using computer simulation. Structural load cases due to payloads like containers, steel coils and cement bags are arrived at. Static structural analysis using MSC Nastran is performed to evaluate for the worst customer loading pattern from structural stress point of view. This paper also describes a simplified method for simulating the effect of trailer suspension, tractor suspension and the fifth-wheel coupling in the analysis whose detailed modeling is not possible at the concept level.
Technical Paper

Effects of Steering System Friction and Jacking Force on On-Center Driving Performance in a Commercial Vehicle

2017-01-10
2017-26-0339
In heavy commercial vehicle segment in India, driver comfort and feel was largely ignored. Fierce competition in the recent years and buyer’s market trend is compelling the designers of heavy truck to focus more on the finer aspects of attribute refinements. Steering is one driver-Vehicle interface which the driver is engaged throughout. Comfort and feel in steering wheel is defined by parameters like steering effort, manoeuvrability, on-center feel & response, cornering feel & response, Torque dead band, return-ability etc. and is influenced by a long list of components and systems in the truck. This study focuses on the influences of jacking torque and steering system friction on the on-center driving performance. Experiments to measure the Jacking torque and steering system friction were conducted in the lab and subjective and objective assessments of on-center driving performance were later conducted at test track in two similar 12 Ton truck to correlate their effects.
Technical Paper

Development of an Objective Methodology for Assessment of Commercial Vehicle Gearshift Quality

2014-04-01
2014-01-0182
Rapid growth in the Indian economy has led to new market trends for commercial vehicles. Customers now expect high levels of comfort from all tactile points in a truck cabin; the gear lever knob is frequently used and its reactions greatly influence how a driver perceives Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) and thereby vehicle quality. The subjectivity of human perception is difficult to measure objectively; therefore this paper represents an objective methodology to correlate customer feedback of gearshift reactions. For the attribute evaluation of a set of intermediate commercial vehicles; detailed subjective appraisals were conducted by expert level assessors for GSQ sub-attributes, and a consecutive objective measurement was performed to investigate and substantiate these vehicle assessments.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Steering Feel and Response with Objective Metrics in Commercial Vehicles

2015-09-29
2015-01-2766
Steering wheel being the most used tactile point in a vehicle, its feel and response is an important factor based on which the vehicle quality is judged. Engineering the right feel and response into the system requires knowledge of the objective parameters that relate to the driver perception. Extensive correlation work has been done in the past pertaining to passenger cars, but the driver requirements for commercial vehicles vary significantly. Often it becomes difficult to match the right parameters to the steering feel experienced by the drivers, since most of the standard ISO weave test units used to describe them are of zero or first order parameters. Analyzing the second order parameters gave a better method to reason driver related feel. Also, each subjective attribute was fragmented into sub-attributes to identify the reason for such a rating resulting in the identification of the major subjective parameters affecting driver ratings.
Technical Paper

Bogie Suspension Noise Reduction on a Commercial Vehicle

2013-09-24
2013-01-2382
The Bogie suspensions ensure better stability at higher loads and also give the utmost reliability under extreme climatic conditions with minimum maintenance. Many vehicle manufactures have adopted for the bogie suspension at rear based on its advantages. The noises generated from the vehicle in the field includes engine noises and flow noises and hence it is very difficult to clearly discern the noise generated from suspension system of the vehicle [1]. Most suspension system noises do not come from a single part but they are caused by the coupling action between related parts, making it difficult to clearly identify the exact cases. This paper details the overall approach to identify the bogie suspension noise on a commercial vehicle and countermeasures to reduce the same.
Technical Paper

An Effective Way To Measure Manual Gearbox Synchroniser Performance

2015-09-29
2015-01-2784
Improved economic growth and infrastructure in India has led to new market trends for commercial vehicles. Customers now expect high levels of comfort from all tactile points in a truck cabin; among them the gearlever knob is frequently used and its reactions greatly influence how a driver perceives gearshift quality (GSQ) and thereby vehicle quality. The importance of the gear shift quality of manual transmissions has increased significantly over the past few years as the refinement of other vehicle systems has increased. In Gearbox, synchroniser is the major component whose performance will affect the peak engagement force to a large extent. Synchroniser mechanism allows gear change to be smooth, noiseless and without vibrations. Since the maximum synchronisation effort vary depending on the rate of the shift actuation, it is difficult to compare synchronisers in different transmissions by force alone.
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