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Technical Paper

byteflight~A new protocol for safety-critical applications

The permanently increasing number of convenience and safety functions leads to higher complexity of in-car electronics and the rapidly growing amount of sensors, actuators and electronic control units places higher demands on high- speed data communication protocols. Safety-critical systems need deterministic protocols with fault-tolerant behavior. The need for on-board diagnosis calls for flexible use of bandwidth and an ever-increasing number of functions necessitates a flexible means of extending the system. None of the communication solutions available on the market until now (like CAN or TTP) have been able to fulfill all these demands. To solve these problems, BMW together with several semiconductor companies has developed a new protocol for safety-critical applications in automotive vehicles.
Technical Paper

Time-domain Transfer Path Analysis for Transient Phenomena Applied to Tip-in/Tip-out (Shock & Jerk)

Tip-in/Tip-out of the accelerator pedal generates transient torque oscillations in the driveline. These oscillations may be amplified by P/T, suspension and body modes and will eventually be sensible at the receiver side in the vehicle, for example at the seat or at the steering-wheel. The forces that are active during this transient excitation are influenced by non-linear effects in both the suspension and the power train mounts. In order to understand the contribution of each of these forces to the total interior target response (e.g. seat rail vibration) a detailed investigation is performed. Traditional force identification methods are not suitable for low-frequent, transient phenomena like tip-in/tip-out. Mount stiffness method can not be used because of non-linear effects in the P/T and suspension mounts. Application of matrix inversion method based on trimmed body vibration transfer functions is not possible due to numerical condition problems.
Technical Paper

The New 12-Cylinder Hydrogen Engine in the 7 Series: The H2 ICE Age Has Begun

Due to its high specific power density, immediate and lively throttle response, good efficiency and life cycles comparable to current powertrain concepts the hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2-ICE) will play a major role in future automotive propulsion systems. The new bi-fuel 12-cylinder hydrogen internal combustion engine for the 7 series is an important step in this direction. In this article engine design and the development of the engine functions of the new H2-12-cylinder will be shown in detail. In particular the engine operation strategy to achieve high efficiencies and very low tail pipe emissions will be presented. Finally potentials of the mono-fuel derivative will be discussed and an outlook for future engine concepts will be given.
Journal Article

Tackling the Complexity of Timing-Relevant Deployment Decisions in Multicore-Based Embedded Automotive Software Systems

Multicore-based ECUs are increasingly used in embedded automotive software systems to allow more demanding automotive applications at moderate cost and energy consumption. Using a high number of parallel processors together with a high number of executed software components results in a practically unmanageable number of deployment alternatives to choose from. However correct deployment is one important step for reaching timing goals and acceptable latency, both also a must to reach safety goals of safety-relevant automotive applications. In this paper we focus at reducing the complexity of deployment decisions during the phases of allocation and scheduling. We tackle this complexity of deployment decisions by a mixed constructive and analytic approach.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

Predictive Analysis for Engine/Driveline Torsional Vibration in Vehicle Conditions using Large Scale Multi Body Model

Driveline torsional vibration in vehicles equipped with an automatic gearbox can lead to increased fuel consumption. At low rpm the torque converter of the automatic gearbox is active. The earlier the torque converter can be disengaged and bypassed by a lock-up clutch, the better the efficiency of the engine. Torsional vibrations in the drivetrain could prevent this early locking of the torque convertor and thus lead to a higher fuel consumption. Furthermore, these torsional vibrations can also lead to lower driver comfort. In order to improve the efficiency and the passenger comfort, a hybrid approach has been developed to predict the torsional vibrations of a full vehicle during a run-up manoeuvre on a chassis dyno, including transient effects. The hybrid approach is based on multi body modeling of the full car in LMS DADS, taking into account the flexibility of all major components of the powertrain.
Technical Paper

Prediction of System-Level Gear Rattle Using Multibody and Vibro-Acoustic Techniques

The objective of this paper is to present the development and the use of a numerical model to predict noise radiated from manual gearboxes due to gear rattle using Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) technologies. This CAE process, as outlined in this paper, includes measured data, computational flexible multibody dynamics, and vibro-acoustic analysis. The measured data is used to identify and reproduce the input excitation which is primarily generated from engine combustion forces. The dynamic interaction of the gearbox components, including flywheel, input/output shafts, contacting gear-pairs, bearings, and flexible housing is modeled using flexible multibody techniques. The acoustic response to the vibration of the gearbox housing is then predicted using vibro-acoustic techniques. These different technologies are augmented together to produce a virtual gearbox that can be used in noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance evaluations.
Technical Paper

On-Line Sound Brush Measurement Technique for 3D Noise Emission Studies

A key issue in noise emission studies of noise producing machinery concerns the identification and analysis of the noise sources and their interaction and radiation into the far field. This paper presents a new acoustic measurement technique for noise source identification in stationary applications. The core of the technology is a handheld measurement instrument combining a position and orientation tracking device with a 3D sound intensity probe. The technique allows an on-line 3D visualization of the sound field while moving the probe freely around the test object. By focusing on the areas of interest, troublesome areas can be identified that require further in-depth analysis. The measurement technique is flexible, interactive and widely applicable in industrial applications. This paper explains the working principle and characteristics of this new technology and positions it to existing methods like traditional sound intensity testing and array techniques.
Journal Article

Novel Index for Evaluation of Particle Formation Tendencies of Fuels with Different Chemical Compositions

Current regulatory developments aim for stricter emission limits, increased environmental protection and purification of air on a local and global scale. In order to find solutions for a cleaner combustion process, it is necessary to identify the critical components and parameters responsible for the formation of emissions. This work provides an evaluation process for particle formation during combustion of a modern direct injection engine, which can help to create new aftertreatment techniques, such as a gasoline particle filter (GPF) system, that are fit for purpose. With the advent of “real driving emission” (RDE) regulations, which include market fuels for the particulate number testing procedure, the chemical composition and overall quality of the fuel cannot be neglected in order to yield a comparable emission test within the EU and worldwide.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

New Acoustic Test Facilities of BMW

BMW has introduced new test stands for noise measurements on passenger cars and motorcycles. Information is given on room conditions, machinery equipment, sound levels, frequency ranges and types of measurement. The semi-anechoic room is designed for measuring the sound distribution emitted by a single vehicle. Road influence is simulated by a reflecting floor and a roller-dynamometer. The free field sound distribution in terms of distance and direction is measured in the anechoic room. This room has high-precision installations for sound source identification and noise mapping. The reverberation room serves to measure sound power emitted by the test object. Its second purpose is to subject the bodywork to a high-power external sound source and to measure the sound-deadening effect of the passenger compartment. In conclusion, the presentation provides reports on the initial experience with these test facilities.
Technical Paper

Measuring a Geometry by Photogrammetry: Evaluation of the Approach in View of Experimental Modal Analysis on Automotive Structures

The very first step when starting an experimental modal analysis project is the definition of the geometry used for visualization of the resulting mode shapes. This geometry includes measurement points with a label and corresponding coordinates, and usually also connections and surfaces to allow a good visualization of the measured mode. This step, even if it sounds straightforward, can be quite time consuming and is often done in a rather approximate way. Photogrammetry is a technique that extracts 2D or 3D information through the process of analyzing and interpreting photographs. It is widely used for the creation of topographic maps or city maps, and more and more for quick modeling of civil engineering structures or accident reconstruction. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of this technique in the context of modal testing of automotive structures.
Technical Paper

Local Gaussian Process Regression in Order to Model Air Charge of Turbocharged Gasoline SI Engines

A local Gaussian process regression approach is presented, which allows to model nonlinearities of internal combustion engines more accurate than global Gaussian process regression. By building smaller models, the prediction of local system behavior improves significantly. In order to predict a value, the algorithm chooses the nearest training points. The number of chosen training points depends on the intensity of estimated nonlinearity. After determining the training points, a model is built, the prediction performed and the model discarded. The approach is demonstrated with a benchmark system and air charge test bed measurements. The measurements are taken from a turbocharged SI gasoline engine with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle. The results show how local Gaussian process regression outmatches global Gaussian process regression concerning model quality and nonlinearities in particular.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Gravel Noise Mechanisms and Impact Noise Transfer

Impact noise, inside a car, due to tire-launched gravel on the road can lead to loss of quality perception. Gravel noise is mainly caused by small-sized particles which are too small to be seen on the road by the driver. The investigation focuses on the identification of the mechanisms of excitation and transfer. The spatial distribution of the particles flying from a tire is determined, as well as the probable impact locations on the vehicle body-panels. Finally the relative noise contributions of the body-panels are estimated by adding the panel-to-ear transfer functions. This form of Transfer-Path-Analysis allows vehicle optimization and target setting on the level of the tires, exterior panel treatment and isolation.
Technical Paper

Inverse Numerical Acoustics of a Truck Engine

Source identification applied to a truck engine and using inverse numerical acoustics is presented. The approach is based on acoustic transfer vectors (ATV) and truncated singular value decomposition (SVD). Acoustic transfer vectors are arrays of transfer functions between surface normal velocity and acoustic pressure at response points. They can be computed using boundary element methods (indirect, direct or multi-domain direct formulations) or finite element methods (in physical or modal coordinates). Regularization techniques such as the so-called L-curve approach are used to identify the optimum SVD truncation. To increase the reliability of the source identification, the approach can use velocity measurements on the boundary surface as well as the standard nearfield pressure measurements. It also allows for linear or spline interpolation of the acoustic transfer vectors in the frequency domain, to increase computational speed.
Technical Paper

Identification, Quantification and Reduction of Structural- Borne Road Noise in a Mid-Size Passenger Car

This paper presents the measurement & analysis procedures and the results of a complete road noise identification and reduction project on a midsize passenger car. Operational interior noise signals and structural accelerations are measured for several test conditions. The operating data are decomposed into sets of mathematically independent phenomena by Principal Component Analysis. Operating Deflection Shape Analysis and Transfer Path Analysis are applied to each of these independent phenomena. Critical transfer paths are thus identified and quantified. The interior sound level is amplified when the frequency content of the transmitted energy coincides with structural resonances or standing waves of the interior car cavity. The vehicle is dynamically characterized by Experimental Structural Modal Analysis and by Acoustic Modal Analysis.
Technical Paper

Identification of the Best Modal Parameters and Strategies for FE Model Updating

The use of numerical models as basis to assemble or modify all kind of new structures is increasing over the last years. This has as benefit that it reduces the number of expensive, physical prototypes. These numerical models however must be verified and validated against measured data. Updating is generally needed to guarantee accurate correspondence with reality. This paper focuses on an exhaust. It describes the different steps of the complete process from the acquisition till the updating. On the measurement side, some typical acquisition measures and an efficient approach to handle (slightly) inconsistent data sets is explained. On the numerical side, it is investigated how to achieve the final updated exhaust with physical relevant characteristics.
Technical Paper

Extraction of Static Car Body Stiffness from Dynamic Measurements

This paper describes a practical approach to extract the global static stiffness of a body in white (BIW) from dynamic measurements in free-free conditions. Based on a limited set of measured frequency response functions (FRF), the torsional and bending stiffness values are calculated using an FRF based substructuring approach in combination with inverse force identification. A second approach consists of a modal approach whereby the static car body stiffness is deduced from a full free-free modal identification including residual stiffness estimation at the clamping and load positions. As an extra important result this approach allows for evaluating the modal contribution of the flexible car body modes to the global static stiffness values. The methods have been extensively investigated using finite element modeling data and verified on a series of body in white measurements.
Technical Paper

Experimental Transfer Path Analysis of a Hybrid Bus

This paper presents the results of an experimental test campaign carried out on a city bus powered by serial hybrid power train. The driveline system combines an Internal Combustion Engine with a battery pack and two electric motors. Tests were aimed at identifying the salient signal characteristics of the noise spectra recorded during operating conditions and to assess the acoustic comfort in the passenger compartment. Transfer Path Analysis technique was applied to identify airborne and structure borne vibro-acoustic loads, to measure transfer functions linking source locations to target locations and to estimate the internal vibro-acoustic comfort in operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Passenger Car Emission in Germany - A Comparative Assessment of Two Forecast Models

Two models for the forecast of road traffic emissions, independently developed in parallel, are comparatively presented and assessed: EPROG developed by BMW and enlarged by VDA for a national application (Germany) and FOREMOVE, developed for application on European Community scale. The analysis of the methodological character of the two algorithms proves that the models are fundamentally similar with regard to the basic calculation schemes used for the emissions. The same holds true as far as the significant dependencies of the emission factors, and the recognition and incorporation of the fundamental framework referring to traffic important parameters (speeds, mileage and mileage distribution etc) are concerned.