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Technical Paper

byteflight~A new protocol for safety-critical applications

2000-06-12
2000-05-0220
The permanently increasing number of convenience and safety functions leads to higher complexity of in-car electronics and the rapidly growing amount of sensors, actuators and electronic control units places higher demands on high- speed data communication protocols. Safety-critical systems need deterministic protocols with fault-tolerant behavior. The need for on-board diagnosis calls for flexible use of bandwidth and an ever-increasing number of functions necessitates a flexible means of extending the system. None of the communication solutions available on the market until now (like CAN or TTP) have been able to fulfill all these demands. To solve these problems, BMW together with several semiconductor companies has developed a new protocol for safety-critical applications in automotive vehicles.
Technical Paper

Vibration Testing and Modal Analysis of Airplanes – Recent Advances

2004-11-02
2004-01-3140
The paper will introduce some recent advances in vibration testing and modal analysis of airplanes. Recently, a very promising parameter estimation method became available, that has the potential to become the new standard. The main advantage of this so-called PolyMAX method is that it yields extremely clear stabilization diagrams even for broadband and high-order analyses. The method will be applied to two aircraft cases: a Ground Vibration Test using broadband shaker excitation on a small composite aircraft and in-flight data using natural turbulences as excitation. These two data sets allow illustrating both the classical Frequency Response Function based as well as the operational output-only modal analysis process.
Technical Paper

Using Mechanical-Acoustic Reciprocity for Diagnosis of Structure Borne Sound in Vehicles

1993-05-01
931340
The low frequency interior noise in cars is for a large part the result of structure borne excitation. The transfer of the structure borne sound involves a large number of components of the engine suspension, wheel suspension and chassis which are all potentially contributing to the overall noise level. This process can be analyzed through a combination of transfer function measurements with operational measurements under normal conditions. This technique, called transfer path analysis, requires large numbers of transfer function measurements with excitation of the body or cabin at the rubber mountings. Unfortunately, bad access to these crucial measurement locations causes either high instrumentation and measurement effort or less accurate measurement data. The practicality and quality of the measurements can be improved by using reciprocal measurements for the mechano-acoustic transfer of the body or cabin structure; a loudspeaker in the cavity is used for the reciprocal excitation.
Technical Paper

Use of a Mass Spectrometer to Continuously Monitor H2S and SO2 in Automotive Exhaust

1990-02-01
900272
In studying H2S emissions, it is desirable to have an analytical technique which is rapid, continuous, accurate and easy to use in a laboratory or vehicle exhaust environment. Typically, H2S has been measured using the EPA impinger method with collection times on the order of 1 to 2 minutes. Other techniques have been developed with significantly shorter response times. However, it has been shown that the major release of H2S occurs in less than 20 seconds after a vehicle changes from rich to lean operation. Therefore, it is highly desirable to have an H2S analytical technique with a response time of less than 10 seconds. In this paper, the benefits of use of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) to continuously monitor H2S and SO2, emissions are reported. Using the CIMS technique, the effects of several operating parameters on the release of H2S and SO2 from automotive catalysts were studied.
Technical Paper

Time-domain Transfer Path Analysis for Transient Phenomena Applied to Tip-in/Tip-out (Shock & Jerk)

2012-06-13
2012-01-1545
Tip-in/Tip-out of the accelerator pedal generates transient torque oscillations in the driveline. These oscillations may be amplified by P/T, suspension and body modes and will eventually be sensible at the receiver side in the vehicle, for example at the seat or at the steering-wheel. The forces that are active during this transient excitation are influenced by non-linear effects in both the suspension and the power train mounts. In order to understand the contribution of each of these forces to the total interior target response (e.g. seat rail vibration) a detailed investigation is performed. Traditional force identification methods are not suitable for low-frequent, transient phenomena like tip-in/tip-out. Mount stiffness method can not be used because of non-linear effects in the P/T and suspension mounts. Application of matrix inversion method based on trimmed body vibration transfer functions is not possible due to numerical condition problems.
Journal Article

The Damage Operator Approach: Fatigue, Creep and Viscoplasticity Modeling in Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue

2011-04-12
2011-01-0485
In the last decades the development time of vehicles has been drastically reduced due to the application of advanced numerical and experimental methods. Specifications concerning durability and other functional attributes for every new model improve for every vehicle. In particular, for machines and components under variable multiaxial loading, fatigue evaluation is one of the most important steps in the design process. Appropriate material testing and simulation is the key to efficient life prediction. However, the life of automotive components, power plants and other high-temperature facilities depends mostly on thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). This is due to the normally variable service conditions, which contain the phases of startup, full load, partial load and shut-down.
Technical Paper

Test Substantiation of Aluminum Chassis with Particular Consideration of Extreme Loads

1997-02-24
971114
For the first time in volume production, supporting welded aluminum structures were used in the chassis area. Metal sheets, extruded sections, longitudinally seam welded pipes and castings were used as semi-finished products. Extensive strength tests, in cooperation with the Design Department and Production, resulted in sophisticated design solutions. In considering matters important to the customer, these solutions were substantiated through numerous examinations which are especially necessary for aluminum.
Journal Article

Tackling the Complexity of Timing-Relevant Deployment Decisions in Multicore-Based Embedded Automotive Software Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-1224
Multicore-based ECUs are increasingly used in embedded automotive software systems to allow more demanding automotive applications at moderate cost and energy consumption. Using a high number of parallel processors together with a high number of executed software components results in a practically unmanageable number of deployment alternatives to choose from. However correct deployment is one important step for reaching timing goals and acceptable latency, both also a must to reach safety goals of safety-relevant automotive applications. In this paper we focus at reducing the complexity of deployment decisions during the phases of allocation and scheduling. We tackle this complexity of deployment decisions by a mixed constructive and analytic approach.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

1999-05-17
1999-01-1849
In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Technical Paper

Structural Design Changes as a Solution to a Resonance Fatigue Problem of a Sports Car

1993-05-01
931341
Optimal design changes to solve vibration induced fatigue failures can only be derived by including structural dynamics considerations into the fatigue lifetime calculation process. Such an integrated design approach to resonance fatigue problems has been developed within the EC Esprit Project 2486 DYNAMO. Also an integration of crack initiation and crack growth calculations has been realised. This integrated dynamic analysis/fatigue analysis procedure is demonstrated in the paper by means of a resonance fatigue problem of a car.
Technical Paper

Research Results on Processes and Catalyst Materials for Lean NOx Conversion

1996-10-01
962041
In a joint research project between industrial companies and a number of research institutes, nitrogen oxide conversion in oxygen containing exhaust gas has been investigated according to the following procedure Basic investigations of elementary steps of the chemical reaction Production and prescreening of different catalytic material on laboratory scale Application oriented screening of industrial catalyst material Catalyst testing on a lean bum gasoline engine, passenger car diesel engines (swirl chamber and DI) and on a DI truck engine Although a number of solid body structures show nitrogen oxide reduction by hydrocarbons, only noble metal containing catalysts and transition metal exchanged zeolites gave catalytic efficiencies of industrial relevance. A maximum of 25 % NOx reduction was found in the European driving cycle for passenger cars, about 40 % for truck engines in the respective European test.
Technical Paper

Powder Clear Coat -- A Quantum Leap in Automotive Paint Technology

2000-03-06
2000-01-1359
BMW - the driving force for progress As we approach the new millenium, to ensure the continuation of the progress into the future, BMW uses leading edge approaches in its materials research and processing. Overview production sites all over the world - Plant Dingolfing Quality requirements for automobile painting The complex and wide-ranging demands that the outer skin of an automobile has to meet offered us the chance to advance with a technological leap from liquid clear coat to the potentials of powder clear coat. The new clear coat technology The clear coat creates the ultimate gloss effect - and powder-based clear coat makes the surface of the car even more brilliant. To achieve this effect the body is covered by microscopically small paint particles. A pioneer achievement A lot of challenges in both material development and systems-engineering had to be made. The automotive world was watching, many experts said it could not be successfully used as an OEM clear coat.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Process Parameters for Automotive Paint Application

2011-10-06
2011-28-0072
The quality of the paint application in automotive industry depends on several process parameters. Thus, finding an optimal solution based on experimental configuration is tedious and time consuming. A first step to reduce the effort is to model the application within the framework of a simulation environment. In this study, we present an approach for the systematic variation of design parameters of the paint process to quantify their influence on the quality of the paint application. Using that information the design space is reduced by neglecting the parameters with low impact and later used to predict an optimal set of input parameters for an optimal paint application.
Technical Paper

On-Line Sound Brush Measurement Technique for 3D Noise Emission Studies

2013-05-13
2013-01-1973
A key issue in noise emission studies of noise producing machinery concerns the identification and analysis of the noise sources and their interaction and radiation into the far field. This paper presents a new acoustic measurement technique for noise source identification in stationary applications. The core of the technology is a handheld measurement instrument combining a position and orientation tracking device with a 3D sound intensity probe. The technique allows an on-line 3D visualization of the sound field while moving the probe freely around the test object. By focusing on the areas of interest, troublesome areas can be identified that require further in-depth analysis. The measurement technique is flexible, interactive and widely applicable in industrial applications. This paper explains the working principle and characteristics of this new technology and positions it to existing methods like traditional sound intensity testing and array techniques.
Journal Article

Novel Index for Evaluation of Particle Formation Tendencies of Fuels with Different Chemical Compositions

2017-08-18
2017-01-9380
Current regulatory developments aim for stricter emission limits, increased environmental protection and purification of air on a local and global scale. In order to find solutions for a cleaner combustion process, it is necessary to identify the critical components and parameters responsible for the formation of emissions. This work provides an evaluation process for particle formation during combustion of a modern direct injection engine, which can help to create new aftertreatment techniques, such as a gasoline particle filter (GPF) system, that are fit for purpose. With the advent of “real driving emission” (RDE) regulations, which include market fuels for the particulate number testing procedure, the chemical composition and overall quality of the fuel cannot be neglected in order to yield a comparable emission test within the EU and worldwide.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

2011-05-17
2011-01-1600
Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

New Acoustic Test Facilities of BMW

1985-05-15
850992
BMW has introduced new test stands for noise measurements on passenger cars and motorcycles. Information is given on room conditions, machinery equipment, sound levels, frequency ranges and types of measurement. The semi-anechoic room is designed for measuring the sound distribution emitted by a single vehicle. Road influence is simulated by a reflecting floor and a roller-dynamometer. The free field sound distribution in terms of distance and direction is measured in the anechoic room. This room has high-precision installations for sound source identification and noise mapping. The reverberation room serves to measure sound power emitted by the test object. Its second purpose is to subject the bodywork to a high-power external sound source and to measure the sound-deadening effect of the passenger compartment. In conclusion, the presentation provides reports on the initial experience with these test facilities.
Technical Paper

Measuring a Geometry by Photogrammetry: Evaluation of the Approach in View of Experimental Modal Analysis on Automotive Structures

2001-04-30
2001-01-1473
The very first step when starting an experimental modal analysis project is the definition of the geometry used for visualization of the resulting mode shapes. This geometry includes measurement points with a label and corresponding coordinates, and usually also connections and surfaces to allow a good visualization of the measured mode. This step, even if it sounds straightforward, can be quite time consuming and is often done in a rather approximate way. Photogrammetry is a technique that extracts 2D or 3D information through the process of analyzing and interpreting photographs. It is widely used for the creation of topographic maps or city maps, and more and more for quick modeling of civil engineering structures or accident reconstruction. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of this technique in the context of modal testing of automotive structures.
Technical Paper

Material Choice and Design of Automotive Plastic Parts Under the Aspects of Recycling

1995-10-01
951847
A lot of very valuable information has already been gained in the process of dismantling, assorting and reconditioning plastic parts on old cars, in reconditioning defective plastic parts from workshops, and in the use of reject parts from production. This know-how is now applied primarily to increase the use of recycled plastics and to optimise the composition and design of future plastic components in the interest of recycling, since further development in these areas is essential in order to establish economically stable material cycles functioning properly in the long term. The present paper describes the most important criteria through which the materials and designs chosen affect the processes and principles of recycling in the case of plastic parts and components.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Gravel Noise Mechanisms and Impact Noise Transfer

2007-05-15
2007-01-2274
Impact noise, inside a car, due to tire-launched gravel on the road can lead to loss of quality perception. Gravel noise is mainly caused by small-sized particles which are too small to be seen on the road by the driver. The investigation focuses on the identification of the mechanisms of excitation and transfer. The spatial distribution of the particles flying from a tire is determined, as well as the probable impact locations on the vehicle body-panels. Finally the relative noise contributions of the body-panels are estimated by adding the panel-to-ear transfer functions. This form of Transfer-Path-Analysis allows vehicle optimization and target setting on the level of the tires, exterior panel treatment and isolation.
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