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Technical Paper

Wash off Resistant 1-Component Structural Adhesives

The application of crash durable structural adhesives in modern cars design, to improve the driving durability, the overall vehicle stiffness, the crash resistance and to make real light weight constructions feasible is significantly gaining in importance. 1-component systems are already introduced in the market and used in automotive industries. Usually the use of these bonds in automotive industries is limited by a relatively low wash off resistance in the pre-treatment tanks of the paint shop. If no additional actions are taken, there is a severe risk of wash off of the adhesives up to the partial loss in functionality. Respectively contamination of the pre-treatment tanks and aftereffects damage the surface of the coated cars. To avoid wash off a thermal process (oven) to pre-gel the adhesive in the flanges of the Body-In-White (BIW)- bodies before entering the pre-treatment utility is necessary. This is a save but cost intensive solution.
Technical Paper

Virtual Validation of Assembly Processes with Digital Human Models — Optimizing the Human-Computer Interaction

Today digital 3D human models are widely used to support the development of future products and in planning and designing production systems. However, these virtual models are generally not sufficiently intuitive and configuring accurate and real body postures is very time consuming. Furthermore, additionally using a human model to virtually examine manual assembly operations of a vehicle is currently synonymous with increased user inputs. In most cases, the user is required to have in-depth expertise in the deployed simulation system. In view of the problems described, in terms of human-computer interaction, it is essential to research and identify the requirements for simulation with digital human models. To this end, experienced staff members gathered the requirements which were then evaluated and weighted by the potential user community. Weaknesses of the simulation software will also be detected, permitting optimisation recommendations to be identified.
Journal Article

Virtual Assessment of Occupied Seat Vibration Transmissibility

This paper presents an integrated simulation process which has been performed in order to assess the riding comfort performance of a vehicle seat system virtually. Present methods of seat comfort design rely on the extensive testing of numerous hardware prototypes. In order to overcome the limitations of this expensive and time-consuming process, and to fasten innovation, simulation-based design has to be used to predict the seat comfort performance very early in the seat design process, leading to a drastic reduction in the number of physical prototypes. The accurate prediction of the seat transfer function by numerical simulation requires a complete simulation chain, which takes into account the successive stages determining the final seat behaviour when submitted to vibrations. First the manufacturing stresses inside the cushion, resulting from the trimming process, are computed.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Hybrid-Electric Powertrains on Chassis Systems and Vehicle Dynamics

While hybrid-electric powertrain features such as regenerative braking and electric driving can improve the fuel economy of a vehicle significantly, these features may also have a considerable impact on driving dynamics. That is why extra effort is necessary to ensure safety and comfort that customers usually expect from a conventional vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a discussion regarding different drivetrain concepts, necessary changes in chassis systems, and the impact on vehicle dynamics. To provide input to this essential discussion, braking and steering systems, as well as suspension design, are analyzed regarding their fit with hybrid systems. It is shown how an integration of hybrid technology and chassis systems benefits vehicle dynamics and why “by-wire” technology is a key enabler for safe and comfortable hybrid-electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

The European Union Mg-Engine Project - Generation of Material Property Data for Four Die Cast Mg-Alloys

A specific objective of the European Mg-Engine project is to qualify at least two die cast Mg alloys with improved high temperature properties, in addition to satisfactory corrosion resistance, castability and costs. This paper discusses the selection criteria for high temperature alloys leading to four candidate alloys, AJ52A, AJ62A, AE44 and AE35. Tensile-, creep- and fatigue testing of standard die cast test specimens at different temperatures and conditions have led to a very large amount of material property data. Numerous examples are given to underline the potential for these alloys in high temperature automotive applications. The subsequent use of the basic property data in material models for design of automotive components is illustrated.
Journal Article

The Development of Turbine Volute Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations: Part 3: Exhaust Radial Turbine Volute Systems

Modern exhaust systems contain not only a piping network to transport hot gas from the engine to the atmosphere, but also functional components such as the catalytic converter and turbocharger. The turbocharger is common place in the automotive industry due to their capability to increase the specific power output of reciprocating engines. As the exhaust system is a main heat source for the under body of the vehicle and the turbocharger is located within the engine bay, it is imperative that accurate surface temperatures are achieved. A study by K. Haehndel [1] implemented a 1D fluid stream as a replacement to solving 3D fluid dynamics of the internal exhaust flow. To incorporate the 3D effects of internal fluid flow, augmented Nusselt correlations were used to produce heat transfer coefficients. It was found that the developed correlations for the exhaust system did not adequately represent the heat transfer of the turbocharger.
Technical Paper

The Development of Exhaust Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations Part 2 - Exhaust Acoustic Silencer Configurations

At the rear of the vehicle an end acoustic silencer is attached to the exhaust system. This is primarily to reduce noise emissions for the benefit of passengers and bystanders. Due to the location of the end acoustic silencer conventional thermal protection methods (heat shields) through experimental means can not only be difficult to incorporate but also can be an inefficient and costly experience. Hence simulation methods may improve the development process by introducing methods of optimization in early phase vehicle design. A previous publication (Part 1) described a methodology of improving the surface temperatures prediction of general exhaust configurations. It was found in this initial study that simulation results for silencer configurations exhibited significant discrepancies in comparison to experimental data.
Journal Article

The Development of Exhaust Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations Part 1 - General Exhaust Configurations

The thermal prediction of a vehicle under-body environment is of high importance in the design, optimization and management of vehicle power systems. Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle's production process, it is important to understand and determine regions of high thermally induced stress within critical under-body components. Therefore allowing engineers to modify the design or alter component material characteristics before the manufacture of hardware. As the exhaust system is one of the primary heat sources in a vehicle's under-body environment, it is vital to predict the thermal fluctuation of surface temperatures along corresponding exhaust components in order to achieve the correct thermal representation of the overall under-body heat transfer. This paper explores a new method for achieving higher accuracy exhaust surface temperature predictions.
Technical Paper

Test Center for Aging Analysis and Characterization of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications

A test center for aging analysis and characterization of Lithium-Ion batteries for automotive applications is optimized by means of a dedicated cell tester. The new power tester offers high current magnitude with fast rise time in order to generate arbitrary charge and discharge waveforms, which are identical to real power net signals in vehicles. Upcoming hybrid and electrical cars show fast current transients due to the implemented power electronics like inverter or DC/DC converter. The various test procedures consider single and coupled effects from current profile, state of charge and temperature. They are simultaneously applied on several cells in order to derive statistical significance. Comprehensive safely functions on both the hardware and the software level ensure proper operation of the complex system.
Technical Paper

Steering System Development in Premium Car Segment

A top-of-the-range car customer not only expects exceptional vehicle design and quality but also a driving experience, which is out of the ordinary. Very harmonious interaction between vehicle dynamics and the steering system is required to offer clients such a consistent driving experience through generations of vehicle models. In this paper the basic properties of a premium driving experience are explored. It is shown that outstanding handling limits are a prerequisite, although most customers never experience such driving situations. In fact, on-center behavior is most crucial in enabling clients to experience part of premium driving performance, and the steering system is the key factor in delivering appropriate feedback to the driver by means of steering torque. Development procedures are presented to achieve the goals described above.
Technical Paper

Software-Intensive Systems in the Automotive Domain:Challenges for Research and Education

Software-intensive systems and functions drive innovations in cars today. OEMs and suppliers face multiple challenges to take advantage of possibilities in this area. The rapidly developing field of software-intensive systems and software-based features in the automotive domain asks for dedicated engineering approaches, models, and processes. This paper defines the characteristics of software engineering for automotive systems and discusses methodological, technological, and organizational implications. These are used to pinpoint promising research areas as well as educational ramifications.
Journal Article

Simulation of Underbody Contribution of Wind Noise in a Passenger Automobile

Wind noise is a significant source of interior noise in automobiles at cruising conditions, potentially creating dissatisfaction with vehicle quality. While wind noise contributions at higher frequencies usually originate with transmission through greenhouse panels and sealing, the contribution coming from the underbody area often dominates the interior noise spectrum at lower frequencies. Continued pressure to reduce fuel consumption in new designs is causing more emphasis on aerodynamic performance, to reduce drag by careful management of underbody airflow at cruise. Simulation of this airflow by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools allows early optimization of underbody shapes before expensive hardware prototypes are feasible. By combining unsteady CFD-predicted loads on the underbody panels with a structural acoustic model of the vehicle, underbody wind noise transmission could be considered in the early design phases.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Complex Movement Sequences in the Product Development of a Car Manufacturer

Cutting development times in car manufacturing means bringing forward the knowledge processes. Simulations based directly on CAD data reduce or replace time-consuming hardware loops significantly and therefore make a significant contribution to this. Ergonomic product design is an area that is challenged as far as the further development of virtual methods is concerned. Simulation of the static and quasi-static positions of passengers inside the car is the current state of the art in ergonomic product design. For this reason, interest is strongly focused on the simulation of complex movement processes within the context of enhancing simulation tools. For the car manufacturer, the manner in which people enter and leave the car is of particular interest. Getting into the car is the customers' first actual contact with it. It may also develop into a serious problem for car drivers, as they get older.
Journal Article

Simulation and Its Contribution to Evaluate Highly Automated Driving Functions

A key criterion for launching autonomous vehicles on real roads is the knowledge of their capability to ensure traffic safety. In contrast to ADAS, deriving this measure of safety is difficult to achieve as the functional scope of an autonomous driving function exceeds by far the one of ADAS. As a consequence, real-world testing solely is not sufficient enough to cover the required test volume. This assessment problem imposes new requirements on a valid test concept for automated driving. A possible solution represents simulation by enabling it to generate reliable test kilometers. As a first step, we discuss in this paper the feasibility of simulation frameworks to re-simulate a real-world test in certain scenarios. We will demonstrate that even with ground truth information of the vehicle odometry and corresponding environment model an acceptable accordance of functional behavior is not guaranteed.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Engine Models

Engine management systems in modern motor vehicles are becoming increasingly extensive and complex. The functionality of the control units which are the central components of such systems is determined by the hardware and software. They are the result of a lengthy development and production process. Road testing of control units, together with testing them on the engine test bench, is very time consuming and costly. An alternative is to test control units away from their actual environment, in a virtual context. This involves operating the control unit on a Hardware-in-the-Loop test bench. The control unit's large number of individual and interlinked functions necessitates a structured, reproducible test procedure. These tests can, however, only be conducted once an engine prototype has been completed, as the parameters for the existing conventional models are determined from the data measured on the test bench.
Journal Article

Psychoacoustic Requirements for Warning Sounds of Quiet Cars

According to upcoming legislative regulations in certain countries, electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will have to be equipped with devices to compensate for the lack of engine noise needed to warn pedestrians against the vehicles. This leads to the question of appropriate sound design which has to meet specific psychoacoustic requirements. The present paper focuses on auditory features of warning sounds to enhance pedestrians' safety with a major focus on the detectability of the exterior noise of the vehicle in an ambient noise. For the evaluation of detectability, the psychoacoustic model developed by Kerber and Fastl will be introduced allowing for the prediction of masked thresholds of the approaching vehicle. The instrumental assessment yields estimates of the distance of an approaching vehicle at the point it becomes audible to the pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Premium Clear Coat at BMW Group

Automotive clear coats have a broad field of requirements to fulfill, e.g. weathering stability, stone chipping, chemical resistance, scratch resistance, and have to show a brilliant surface appearance. Beside this, the paint and repair process for high volume car manufacturing must be fulfilled with respect to costs and the environment. From the development point of view of a car manufacture interactions between these properties and the critical way of understanding and describing the value for the customer is shown. The conclusion of this scenario and a detailed benchmark study of different new clear coats guide to the development of the ‘Next generation’ of powder clear coats.
Technical Paper

Patch Transfer Function Approach for Analysis of Coupled Vibro-Acoustic Problems Involving Porous Materials

In many application fields, such as automotive and aerospace, the full FE Biot model has been widely applied to vibro-acoustics problems involving poro-elastic materials in order to predict their structural and acoustic performance. The main drawback of this approach is however the large computational burden and the uncertainty of the input data (Biot parameters) that may lead to less accurate prediction. In order to overcome these disadvantages industry is asking for more efficient techniques. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of structures coupled with poroelastic trims and fluid cavities can be predicted by means of the Patch Transfer Function (PTF) approach. The PTF is a sub-structuring procedure that allows for coupling different sub-systems via impedance relations determined at their common interfaces. The coupling surfaces are discretised into elementary areas called patches.
Technical Paper

On Various Aspects of the Unsteady Aerodynamic Effects on Cars Under Crosswind Conditions

Currently, the aerodynamic development of a car concentrates on steady state aerodynamic forces. Development is mainly performed in wind tunnels with very low turbulence. On the road we find other boundary conditions. Natural wind, other cars and trucks influence the yawing moment and the side force. During acceleration and deceleration the vehicle speed is not constant, the effect of unsteady aerodynamic forces is especially important and can not be neglected. The approach to measure unsteady effects is to use a wind tunnel that has the capability to produce unsteady flow and in addition to instrument a car to drive under natural windy conditions. The wind tunnel, with its reproducible conditions, allows measurements to be made with well defined frequencies of the approaching flow. This is important since the aerodynamic forces are not sensitive to all frequencies in the same way. One way to increase driving comfort is to reduce these forces at specific frequencies.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Human Kinematics and Injuries in Side Crash Scenarios

Optimizing protection for side impact in vehicle design requires valid information about occupant behavior under lateral loading. For this reason a comparison of numerical models of dummies and human body in side impact scenarios is shown to estimate the benefits of using numerical human models in future safety design. First a well-known sled test set up was simulated to compare the two devices in a defined surrounding. After looking at the kinematics, the loads, accelerations and injury values of the occupants were derived and compared to each other. Second the occupant models were positioned in a vehicle model to compare their behavior in a more complex loading case, such as an EuroNCAP Barrier Test. Focus of this investigation was the injury mechanism occurring in the human model. The Behavior of the Dummy and H-Model is comparable and shows similar responses in a global view.