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Technical Paper

The Modeling and Design of a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine

Engine downsizing of the spark ignition gasoline engine is recognized as one of the most effective approaches to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. However, further engine downsizing beyond 50% in a 4-stroke gasoline engine is limited by the occurrence of abnormal combustion events as well as much greater thermal and mechanical loads. In order to achieve aggressive engine downsizing, a boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine concept has been proposed and researched by means of CFD simulation and demonstration in a single cylinder engine. In this paper, the intake port design on the in-cylinder flow field and gas exchange characteristics of the uniflow 2-stroke cycle was investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In particular, the port orientation on the in-cylinder swirl, the trapping efficiency, charging efficiency and scavenging efficiency was analyzed in details.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Homogeneity and Repeatability on Particulates Using the PLIF Technique in an Optical DISI Engine

The work was concerned with visualisation of the charge homogeneity and cyclic variations within the planar fuel field near the spark plug in an optical spark ignition engine fitted with an outwardly opening central direct fuel injector. Specifically, the project examined the effects of fuel type and injection settings, with the overall view to understanding some of the key mechanisms previously identified as leading to particulate formation in such engines. The three fuels studied included a baseline iso-octane, which was directly compared to two gasoline fuels containing 10% and 85% volume of ethanol respectively. The engine was a bespoke single cylinder with Bowditch style optical access through a flat piston crown. Charge stratification was studied over a wide spectrum of injection timings using the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, with additional variation in charge temperature due to injection also estimated when viable using a two-line PLIF approach.
Technical Paper

The Effect on Engine Performance and NO Emissions of a Two-Stage Expansion Cycle in a Spark Ignition Engine

This paper presents the development of an engine simulation program for SI engines and its application to a two-stage expansion cycle. The two-stage expansion analysis is performed using the engine simulation, where a sudden expansion much faster than the normal expansion takes place during the expansion stroke. The changes in NO emissions and knock tolerance of the resulting new engine cycle are investigated for the same compression ratio. The changes in NO emissions and specific fuel consumption through increasing the compression ratio in order to return to the same amount of work done within the cycle are also studied.
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 1: Effect of Reducing Inlet Charge Oxygen

This is a first of a series of papers describing how the replacement of some of the inlet air with EGR modifies the diesel combustion process and thereby affects the exhaust emissions. This paper deals with only the reduction of oxygen in the inlet charge to the engine (dilution effect). The oxygen in the inlet charge to a direct injection diesel engine was progressively replaced by inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, total mass and the specific heat capacity of the inlet charge were kept constant. The use of inert gases for oxygen replacement, rather than carbon dioxide (CO2) or water vapour normally found in EGR, ensured that the effects on combustion of dissociation of these species were excluded. In addition, the effects of oxygen replacement on ignition delay were isolated and quantified.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion in a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion has been achieved in a production type 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was based on a Ford 1.7L Zetec-SE 16V engine with a compression ratio of 10.3, using substantially standard components modified only in design dimensions to control the gas exchange process in order to significantly increase the trapped residuals. The engine was also equipped with Variable Cam Timing (VCT) on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. It was found that the largely increased trapped residuals alone were sufficient to achieve CAI in this engine and with VCT, a range of loads between 0.5 and 4 bar BMEP and engine speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm were mapped for CAI fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The measured CAI results were compared with those of Spark Ignition (SI) combustion in the same engine but with standard camshafts at the same speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Performance and Analysis of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with CAI Combustion

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was realised in a production type 4-stroke 4-cylinder gasoline engine without intake charge heating or increasing compression ratio. The CAI engine operation was achieved using substantially standard components modified only in camshafts to restrict the gas exchange process The engine could be operated with CAI combustion within a range of load (0.5 to 4 bar BMEP) and speed (1000 to 3500 rpm). Significant reductions in both specific fuel consumption and CO emissions were found. The reduction in NOx emission was more than 93% across the whole CAI range. Though unburned hydrocarbons were higher under the CAI engine operation. In order to evaluate the potential of the CAI combustion technology, the European NEDC driving cycle vehicle simulation was carried out for two identical vehicles powered by a SI engine and a CAI/SI hybrid engine, respectively.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Induced Pre-Ignition in an Optical SI Engine

This work was concerned with study of lubricant introduced directly into the combustion chamber and its effect on pre-ignition and combustion in an optically accessed single-cylinder spark ignition engine. The research engine had been designed to incorporate full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding peak in-cylinder pressures of up to 150bar. An experiment was designed where a fully formulated synthetic lubricant was deliberately introduced through a specially modified direct fuel injector to target the exhaust area of the bore. Optical imaging was performed via natural light emission, with the events recorded at 6000 frames per second. Two port injected fuels were evaluated including a baseline commercial grade gasoline and low octane gasoline/n-heptane blend. The images revealed the location of deflagration sites consistently initiating from the lubricant itself.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a DI Spark Ignition Engine with Throttled and Unthrottled Operations

In recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of comparison between various operating strategies and alternative fuels at different SI modes. In this research, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valve train system has been commissioned and used to study and compare different engine operation modes. In this work, the fuel consumption, gaseous and particulate emissions of gasoline and its mixture with ethanol (E15 and E85) were measured and analysed when the engine was operated at the same load but with different load control methods by an intake throttle, reduced intake valve duration, and positive overlap.
Technical Paper

Dilution Effects on the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Alcohol Fuels

This paper presents results from an experimental programme researching the in-cylinder conditions necessary to obtain homogenous CAI (or HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine. The fuels under investigation include three blends of Unleaded Gasoline, a 95 RON Primary Reference Fuel, Methanol, and Ethanol. This work concentrates on establishing the CAI operating range with regard to Air/Fuel ratio and Exhaust Gas Re-circulation and their effect on the ignition timing, combustion rate and variability, Indicated thermal efficiency, and engine-out emissions such as NOx. Detailed maps are presented, defining how each of the measured variables changes over the entire CAI region. Results indicate that the alcohols have significantly higher tolerance to dilution than the hydrocarbon fuels tested. Also, variations in Gasoline blend have little effect on any of the combustion parameters measured.
Technical Paper

Continuous Load Adjustment Strategy of a Gasoline HCCI-SI Engine Fully Controlled by Exhaust Gas

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its narrow operation range that covers only the light and medium loads. Therefore, to expand the operation range of HCCI, mode switching between HCCI combustion and transition SI combustion is necessary, which may bring additional problems to be resolved, including load fluctuation and increasing the complexity of control strategy, etc. In this paper, a continuously adjustable load strategy is proposed for gasoline engines. With the application of the strategy, engine load can be adjusted continuously by the in-cylinder residual gas fraction in the whole operation range. In this research, hybrid combustion is employed to bridge the gaps between HCCI and traditional SI and thus realize smooth transition between different load points.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Fuelled with Different n-Butanol-Gasoline Blends

Biobutanol, i.e. n-butanol, as a second generation bio-derived alternative fuel of internal combustion engines, can facilitate the energy diversification in transportation and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from engines and vehicles. However, the majority of research was conducted on spark-ignition engines fuelled with n-butanol and its blend with gasoline. A few investigations were focused on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines fuelled with n-butanol-gasoline blends. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single cylinder four stroke port fuel injection HCCI engine with fully variable valve lift and timing mechanisms on both the intake and exhaust valves. HCCI combustion was achieved by employing the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy while being fueled with gasoline (Bu0), n-butanol (Bu100) and their blends containing 30% n-butanol by volume (Bu30).
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of CAI Combustion with Alcohol Fuels

Due to its potential for simultaneous improvement in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion has been subject to continuous research in the last several years. At the same time, there has been a lot of interest in the use of alternative fuels in order to reduce reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Therefore, this experimental study has been carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol fuels on the CAI combustion process and on the resulting engine performance. The experimental work was conducted on an optical single cylinder engine with an air-assisted injector. To achieve controlled autoignition, residual gas was trapped in the cylinder by using negative valve overlap and an intake air heater was used to ensure stable CAI combustion in the optical engine. Methanol, ethanol and blended fuels were tested and compared with the results of gasoline.
Technical Paper

A Study of Turbulent Flame Development with Ethanol Fuels in an Optical Spark Ignition Engine

The work was concerned with experimental study of the turbulent flame development process of ethanol fuels in an optically accessed spark ignition research engine. The fuels were evaluated in a single cylinder engine equipped with full-bore overhead optical access and operated at typical stoichiometric part-load conditions. High-speed natural light (or chemiluminescence) imaging and simultaneous in-cylinder pressure data measurement and analysis were used to understand the fundamental influence of both low and high ethanol content on turbulent flame propagation and subsequent mass burning. Causes for the difference in cyclic variations were evaluated in detail, with comparisons made to existing burning velocity correlations where available.