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Journal Article

Prediction of Spray Behavior in Injected by Urea SCR Injector and the Reaction Products

In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field. Liquid film adhering to the wall and deposit generated after evaporation of water from the liquid film are photographed by the digital camera.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Oil Dilution by Post-injection in DPF Regeneration Mode

This work investigated the mechanism of oil dilution by post injection to remove accumulated particulate matter on the diesel particulate filter of diesel engines. We developed a model to simulate post injection spray under low ambient gas pressure conditions. The model can predict the quantity of fuel mass adhered on the cylinder wall. The adhered fuel enters oil sump through the piston ring and cause oil dilution. The fuel in diluted oil evaporates during normal engine operations. We focus on the mechanism of fuel evaporation from diluted oil. The effects of engine speed and oil temperature on the evaporation were investigated. The results showed that the fuel evaporation rate increases with increasing engine speed and oil temperature. Furthermore, we developed an empirical model to predict the fuel evaporation rate of diluted oil through regression analysis with measured data.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Measurements of HNCO Hydrolysis over SCR Catalyst

To meet the strict emission regulations for diesel engines, an advanced processing device such as a Urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system is used to reduce NOx emissions. The Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test, which is implemented in the European Union, will expand the range of conditions under which the engine has to operate [1], which will lead to the construction of a Urea-SCR system capable of reducing NOx emissions at lower and higher temperature conditions, and at higher space velocity conditions than existing systems. Simulations are useful in improving the performance of the urea-SCR system. However, it is necessary to construct a reliable NOx reduction model to use for system design, which covers the expanded engine operation conditions. In the urea-SCR system, the mechanism of ammonia (NH3) formation from injected aqueous urea solution is not clear. Thus, it is important to clarify this mechanism to improve the NOx reduction model.
Technical Paper

Direct Visualization of Soot and Ash Transport in Diesel Particulate Filters during Active Regeneration Process

This study employed a diesel particulate generator (DPG), with an installed engine oil injector for soot and ash accumulation in a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Ash was generated by engine oil injection into the diesel burner flame. The amount of soot accumulation per loading varied from 0.5 g/L to 8 g/L while ash accumulation amount per loading was maintained at 0.5 g/L. Initially, ash accumulation distribution in the DPF was visualized using X-ray computed tomography (CT). It was revealed that the form of ash accumulation changed depending on the amount of soot accumulation before active regeneration, i.e., a large amount of soot accumulation resulted in plug ash, whereas a small amount of soot accumulation resulted in wall ash. To clarify ash accumulation mechanisms, soot and ash transport behavior in DPF during active regeneration process was directly observed using a high-speed camera through an optically accessible D-shaped cut DPF covered with a quartz glass plate.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Spray Feature Injected by Tailpipe Injector for Aftertreatment of Diesel Engine Emissions

Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is a very effective aftertreatment device to limit particulate emissions from diesel engines. As the amount of soot collected in the DPF increases, the pressure loss increases. Therefore, DPF regeneration needs to be performed. Injected fuel into the exhaust line upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), hydrocarbons are oxidized on the DOC, which increases the exhaust gas temperature at the DPF inlet. It is also necessary that the injected fuel is completely vaporized before entering the DOC, and uniformly mixed with the exhaust gases in order to make the DOC work efficiency. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line are challenging. Therefore, it is important that the fuel spray feature is grasped to perform DPF regeneration effectively. The purpose of this study is the constructing a simulation model.