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Technical Paper

Turning Control and Analysis for a Tracked Vehicle with Electric Transmission System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1592
How to control and analyze the turning process of a tracked vehicle with electric transmission system is an important issue. In the paper two turning control methods are presented according to its study. The balance relations of its tractive effort and power versus radius are obtained by the calculation with using the mathematical model of basic turning dynamics and constraint conditions. The model of continuously variable radius turning is implemented by a RBF neural network which is of the better identifying ability, and the more turning results can be given from it. These turning analyses are significant for the electric transmission system.
Technical Paper

Topology Optimization of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Frame Using Multi-Loading Cases Optimization

2008-06-23
2008-01-1734
This presentation evaluates the contribution of multi-objective programming scheme for the conceptual design of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle frame's structure using topological optimization. The compromise programming method was applied to describe the statically loaded multicompliance topology optimization. Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) was used as the interpolation scheme to indicate the dependence of material modulus upon regularized element densities. The sequential convex programming approach was applied to solve the optimization problem. The application on the chassis frame was used to demonstrate the characteristics of the presented methodologies based on the commercial software package OptiStruct.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional CFD Analysis of Semi-Direct Injection Hydraulic Free Piston Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1018
In this paper, a new method for the driving of the hydraulic free piston engine (HFPE) is proposed. Hydraulic differential drive achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system, which has a great influence on the engine dynamic performance. The purpose of this paper is to solve the key operation and control problems for HFPE to commix fuel with air. HFPE adopts two-stroke loop-scavenging and semi-direct injection. The semi-direct injection nozzle is located in the liner wall inside the main intake port, with the axes oriented towards the piston at the Bottom Dead Center (BDC). Different scavenging pressures and injection angles result in different impacts on the mixture of fuel and air in the cylinder. This study analyzes the changes of the combustion heat release rate by simulation.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Ethanol-Butanol Ratio on the Droplet Behavior During Impact onto a Heated Surface

2017-10-08
2017-01-2289
Droplets impacting onto the heated surface is a typical phenomenon either in CI engines or in GDI SI engines, which is regarded significant for their air-fuel mixing. Meanwhile, alcohols including ethanol and butanol, has been widely studied as internal combustion engine alternative fuels due to their excellent properties. In this paper, under different component ratio conditions, the ethanol-butanol droplet impacting onto the heated aluminum surface has been studied experimentally. The falling height of the droplets were set at 5cm. A high-speed camera, set at 512×512pixels, 5000 fps and 20 μs of exposure time, was used to visualize the droplet behavior impinging onto the hot aluminum surface. The impact regimes of the binary droplet were identified. The result showed that the Leidenfrost temperature of droplets was affected by the ratio of ethanol to butanol. The higher the content of butanol in the droplet, the higher the Leidenfrost temperature.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Temperature on the Ignition Initiation Location of a Pre-Chamber Generated Hot Turbulent Jet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0184
Ignition location is one of the important factors that affect the thermal efficiency, exhaust emissions and knock sensitivity in premixed-charge ignition engines. However, the ignition initiation locations of pre-chamber generated turbulent jet ignition, which is a promising ignition enhancement method, are not clearly understood due to the complex physics behind it. Motivated by this, the ignition initiation location of a transient turbulent jet in a constant volume combustor is analyzed by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In the CFD simulations of this work, commercial codes KIVA-3 V release 2 and an in-house-developed chemical solver with a detailed mechanism for H2/air mixtures are used. Comparisons are performed between simulated and experimental ignition initiation locations, and they agree well with one another. A detailed parametric study of the influence of in-cylinder temperature on the ignition initiation location is also performed.
Technical Paper

The Application of Solid Selective Catalytic Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2364
Urea SCR technology is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea SCR process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and reduces NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12°C. For preventing deposits formation, aqueous urea solution is hardly injected into exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200°C. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions. This paper presents a solid SCR technology for control NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The Application of HSIC in Idle Speed Control of Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960330
This paper describes the application of Human Simulation Intelligent Control(HSIC) method to improve the idle speed performance of heavy-duty diesel engines on the basis of diesel engine electronic control system. The HSIC is a kind of intelligent control method which can be used without knowing the system's model and it can on line choose control models and it is also easy to be used under the condition of diesel engine electronic control system. In our system, we used electronic control system to control fuel quantity by double loop control of pump rack position and engine speed. From the experimental results, The engine minimum idle speed has been reduced from 800 rpm at first to 500 rpm, and the speed fluctuation have been reduced by 50 percent. From the system's design and test, the simplicity and efficiency of the HSIC control method were demonstrated.
Journal Article

Surface Fatigue Cracking Behavior of a CrN-Coated Tool Steel Influenced by Sliding Cycles and Sliding Energy Density

2017-03-28
2017-01-0303
Light-weighting of vehicles is one of the challenges for transportation industry due to the increasing pressure of demands in better fuel economy and environment protection. Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are considered as prominent material of choice to realize lightweight auto body and structures at least in near term. Stamping of AHSS with conventional die materials and surface coatings, however, results in frequent die failures and undesired panel surface finish. A chromium nitride (CrN) coating with plasma nitriding case hardened layer on a die material (duplex treatment) is found to offer good wear and galling resistances. The coating failure initiates from fatigue cracking on the coating surface due to cyclic sliding frictions. In this work, cyclic inclined sliding wear test was used to imitate a stamping process for study on development of coating fatigue cracking, including crack length and spacing vs. sliding-cycles and sliding energy densities.
Technical Paper

Study on the Interaction of Clearance Flow and Shock Wave in a Turbine Nozzle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1039
Radial flow Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT) enables better matching between the turbocharger and engine. At partial loading or low-end engine operating points, the nozzle vane opening of the VNT is decreased to achieve higher turbine efficiency and transient response, which is a benefit for engine fuel consumption and emission. However, under certain small nozzle opening conditions (such as nozzle brake and low-end operating points), strong shock waves and strong nozzle clearance flow are generated. Consequently, strong rotor-stator interaction between turbine nozzle and impeller is the key factor of the impeller high cycle fatigue and failure. In present paper, flow visualization experiment is carried out on a linear turbine nozzle. The turbine nozzle is designed to have single-sided clearance, and the Schlieren visualization method is used to describe the formation and development process of clearance flow and shock wave under different clearance and expansion ratio configurations.
Journal Article

Study on a Closed-Loop Coupling Model without Coupling Spring

2016-04-05
2016-01-1315
Closed-loop coupling model, based on complex eigenvalue analysis, is one of the most popular and effective methods for brake squeal analysis. In the model, imaginary coupling springs are used to represent the normal contacting force between coupled nodes. Unfortunately, the physical meaning of these coupling springs was seldom discussed and there’s no systematic method to determine the value of spring stiffness. Realizing this problem, this paper, based on finite element model and modal synthesis technique, develops a new closed-loop coupling disc brake squeal model without introducing imaginary coupling springs. Different from the traditional model where two nodes at coupling interface are connected through a spring, these node-pairs in the new model are assumed to remain in tight contact during vibration. Details of the model, including force analysis, coordinate reduction and transformation and complex eigenvalue decomposition are given in this paper.
Journal Article

Study on Repeated-Root Modes in Substructure Modal Composition Analysis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0477
The dynamic properties of disc rotor play important role in the NVH performance of a disc brake system. Disc rotor in general is a centrosymmetric structure. It has many repeated-root modes within the interested frequency range and they may have significant influence on squeal occurrence. A pair of repeated-root modes is in nature one vibration mode. However, in current complex eigenvalue analysis model and relevant analysis methods, repeated-root modes are processed separately. This may lead to contradictory result. This paper presents methods to deal with repeated-root modes in substructure modal composition (SMC) analysis to avoid the contradiction. Through curve-fitting technique, the modal shape coefficients of repeated-root modes are expressed in an identical formula. This formula is used in SMC analysis to obtain an integrated SMC value to represent the total influence of two repeated-root modes.
Technical Paper

Study on Pressure Fluctuation of a Constant Pressure Fuel System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0828
The pressure fluctuation characteristics of a constant pressure fuel system has great influence on its fuel injection characteristics. It is, therefore important to understand the impacts of these fluctuations in order to better study and optimize the fuel injection characteristics. In this study, the pressure fluctuation characteristics of the high pressure common rail system have been investigated experimentally. The transient pressure at different positions in the high pressure common rail system have been measured. The phase of pressure fluctuation during the injection process has been analyzed and the corresponding fluctuating characteristic parameters have been characterized for each phase. The changes in pressure wave propagation velocity, fuel injection pressure drop amplitude, wave amplitude, period and decay time are obtained by studying the fluctuation characteristic parameters caused by fuel pressure and temperature change.
Technical Paper

Study on Nonlinear Rotordynamics Characteristics for Electric Compound Turbocharger

2017-10-08
2017-01-2418
The electric compound turbocharger(ECT) which integrates a high speed motor into a turbocharger rotor shaft can be used transiently to accelerate the turbocharger more quickly in response to an acceleration requirement. It can utilize the exhaust gas energy fully to improve the engine fuel efficiency and benefit for engine with lower emissions. The key technique of ECT is to solve the reliability problems when an electrical motor is integrated into a turbocharger shaft between the turbine and compressor wheels will increase the burden for the bearing support and affect the turbocharger shaft rotation characteristics. In order to know the dynamics behavior of higher load bearing system is explored for reliability, this paper focus on the nonlinear rotor dynamics characteristics of ECT rotor bearing system.
Journal Article

Study on Hydrodynamic Torque Converter Parameter Integrated Optimization Design System Based on Tri-Dimensional Flow Field Theory

2008-06-23
2008-01-1525
Hydrodynamic torque converter parameter integrated optimization design system is established based on tri-dimensional flow field theory. Design segments such as optimization initial values searching by meanline theory, cascade solid modeling, structure mesh of flow passage, CFD(computational fluid dynamics), DOE(design of experiment), RSM(response surface model)and optimization algorithm are integrated in this system and therefore a three dimensional optimization design method for hydrodynamic torque converter is presented and realized. An optimization design instance is accomplished by workstation computer cluster, and its result shows that speed and accuracy of design are improved and design system based on 3D flow field theory is accurate and effective.
Technical Paper

Studies on Anti-Slip Regulation Technologies for AMT Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1314
In order to improve the tractive ability, steering capability and directional stability, etc. of automated mechanical transmission (AMT) vehicles running on the wet and slippery road, the anti-slip regulation (ASR) technologies for AMT vehicles are developed. The significance of ASR for AMT vehicles is introduced; a road friction recognition method based on the deceleration of driving wheels is investigated; a fuzzy anti-slip control system based on adjustment of engine torque is developed and the corresponding experimental verification is conducted. The experimental results denote that the proposed method is effective to eliminate the excessive slip when the AMT vehicle travels on the low friction road.
Technical Paper

State Estimation Based on Interacting Multiple Mode Kalman Filter for Vehicle Suspension System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1480
The study of controllable suspension properties special in the characteristics of improving ride comfort and road handling is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Currently, since most suspension control requires the observation of unmeasurable state, how to accurately acquire the state of a suspension system attracts more attention. To solve this problem, a novel approach interacting multiple mode Kalman Filter (IMMKF) is proposed in this paper. Suspension system parameters are crucial for the performance of state observers. Uncertain suspension system parameters in various conditions, e.g. due to additional load, have significant effect on state estimation. Simultaneously, state transition among different models may be happened on the condition of varying system parameters.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Soot and PAH Formation Characteristics of Methanol-Gasoline Belnds in Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames

2018-04-03
2018-01-0357
Particulate matter emissions are becoming a big issue for GDI engines as the emission regulations being more stringent. Methanol has been considered to be an important alternative fuel to reduce soot emissions. To understand the effect of methanol addition on soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation, the 2-D distributions of soot volume fraction and different size PAHs relative concentrations in methanol/gasoline laminar diffusion flames were measured by TC-LII and PLIF techniques. The effect of methanol was investigated under the conditions of the same carbon flow and the same flame height. The methanol volume fraction was set as M0/20/40/60/80. The results showed that the natural luminescent flame lift-off height and soot lift-off height increases consistently with the increasing methanol content due to the increase of outlet velocity of fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Straight-Line Type Assist Characteristic of Electric Power-Assisted Steering

2004-03-08
2004-01-1107
Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) is a new power steering technology that will define the future of vehicle steering. The assist of EPAS is the function of the steering wheel torque and vehicle velocity. The assist characteristic of EPAS is set by control software, which is one of the key issues of EPAS. The straight-line type assist characteristic has been used in some current EPAS products, but its influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel hasn't been explicitly studied in theory. In this paper, the straight-line type assist characteristic is analyzed theoretically. Then a whole vehicle dynamic model used to study the straight-line type assist characteristic is built with ADAMS/Car and validated with DCF (Driver Control Files) mode of ADAMS/Car. Based on the whole vehicle dynamic model, the straight-line type assist characteristic's influence on the steering maneuverability and road feel is investigated.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of Hydraulic Differential Drive Free-piston Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1300
The hydraulic free piston engine is a complex mechanical-electro-liquid system, in order to simplify the complex system of the single hydraulic free piston engine, a new method for the driving of hydraulic free piston engine is proposed. Hydraulic differential drive achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system. The structure and principle of hydraulic differential drive free-piston engine are analyzed and the mathematical model is established based on the piston force analysis and the hydraulic system working principle. In addition, the control strategy of this novel hydraulic driving engine is also introduced. Finally, the transient results of dynamics are obtained through simulation. Then we compare our results to the ones from the hydraulic free piston engine made by the company Innas.
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