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Technical Paper

Studies on Anti-Slip Regulation Technologies for AMT Vehicles

In order to improve the tractive ability, steering capability and directional stability, etc. of automated mechanical transmission (AMT) vehicles running on the wet and slippery road, the anti-slip regulation (ASR) technologies for AMT vehicles are developed. The significance of ASR for AMT vehicles is introduced; a road friction recognition method based on the deceleration of driving wheels is investigated; a fuzzy anti-slip control system based on adjustment of engine torque is developed and the corresponding experimental verification is conducted. The experimental results denote that the proposed method is effective to eliminate the excessive slip when the AMT vehicle travels on the low friction road.
Technical Paper

Response Decoupling Method in Mount Design with Emphasis on Transient Load Conditions

This research examined the focused design, elastic design, energy decoupling, and torque roll axis (TRA) decoupling methods for mount optimization design. Requiring some assumptions, these methods are invalid for some load conditions and constraints. The linearity assumption is advantageous and simplifies both design and optimization analysis, facilitating engineering applications. However, the linearity is rarely seen in real-world applications, and there is no practical method to directly measure the reaction forces in the three locally orthogonal directions, preventing validation of existing methods by experimental results. For nonlinear system identification, there are additional challenges such as unobservable internal variables and the uncertainty of measured data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Journal Article

Numerical Optimization on a Centrifugal Turbocharger Compressor

Performances of a centrifugal turbocharger compressor are investigated and validated in this paper. Based on the validation results, numerical optimizations are performed using ANN and CFD methods. Different impeller geometry with free parameters controlling stacking laws, end-wall, blade sectional camber curves and corresponding performances are used as input layer of ANN in the optimization, while adiabatic total-to-total efficiency and total pressure ratio are used as output layer of the optimization cycle. With this method, the performances of the compressor investigated in this paper are improved notably.
Journal Article

Investigation of Trailer Yaw Motion Control Using Active Front Steer and Differential Brake

This paper presents a control system development for a yaw motion control of a vehicle-trailer combination using the integrated control of active front steer (AFS) and differential brake (DB). A 21 degree of freedom (dof) vehicle-trailer combination model that represents a large SUV and a medium one-axle trailer has been developed for this study. A model reference sliding mode controller (MRSMC) has been developed to generate the desired yaw moment. Based on the understanding of advantages and limitations of AFS and DB, a new integrated control algorithm was proposed. The simulation result shows that integrated control of AFS and DB can restrain the trailer's oscillation effectively and shows less longitudinal speed drop and higher stable margin compared to the DB activated only case while maintaining the yaw stability.
Technical Paper

G-G Diagram Generation Based on Phase Plane Method and Experimental Validation for FSAE Race Car

In order to discuss the limit handling performance of a FSAE race car, a method to generate the G-G diagram was proposed based on phase plane concept. The simulated G-G diagram was validated by experiments with an electric FSAE race car. In section 1, a nonlinear 7 DOFs dynamic model of a certain electric FSAE race car was built. The tire mechanical properties were described by Magic Formula, and the tire test data was provided by FSAE TTC. In section 2, firstly the steady-state yaw rate response was discussed in different vehicle speed and lateral acceleration based on the simulations. Then the method to generate the G-G diagram based on phase plane concept was proposed, and the simulated G-G diagram of a certain FSAE race car was obtained. In section 3, the testbed FSAE race car was described, including the important apparatuses used in the experiments. Based on the race track experiment, the G-G diagram of the race car was obtained.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Observer for Nonlinear Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Coupled Lateral and Vertical Dynamics

The study of vehicle state estimation performance especially on the aspect of observer-based control for improving vehicle ride comfort and road handling is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Since vehicle roll behavior with various road excitations act an important part of driving safety, how to accurately obtain vehicle state under various driving scenes are of great concern. However, previous researches seldom consider coupling relation between vehicle vertical and lateral response with steering input under various road excitation. To address this issue, comprehension analyses on vehicle roll state estimation with coupled input are present in this paper. A full-car nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is first created to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling dynamics.
Technical Paper

Development of Effective Bicycle Model for Wide Ranges of Vehicle Operations

This paper proposes an effective nonlinear bicycle model including longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motions of a vehicle. This bicycle model uses a simplified piece-wise linear tire model and tire force tuning algorithm to produce closely matching vehicle trajectory compared to real vehicle for wide vehicle operation ranges. A simplified piece-wise tire model that well represents nonlinear tire forces was developed. The key parameters of this model can be chosen from measured tire forces. For the effects of dynamic load transfer due to sharp vehicle maneuvers, a tire force tuning algorithm that dynamically adjusts tire forces of the bicycle model based on measured vehicle lateral acceleration is proposed. Responses of the proposed bicycle model have been compared with commercial vehicle dynamics model (CarSim) through simulation in various vehicle maneuvers (ramp steer, sine-with-dwell).
Technical Paper

A Novel Dual Nonlinear Observer for Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Lateral and Vertical Coupling

The study of vehicle coupling state estimation accuracy especially in observer-based vehicle chassis control for improving road handling and ride comfort is a challenging task for vehicle industry under various driving conditions. Due to a large amount of life safety arising from vehicle roll behavior, how to precisely acquire vehicle roll state and rapidly provide for the vehicle control system are of great concern. Simultaneously, uncertainty is unavoidable for various aspects of a vehicle system, e.g., varying sprung mass, moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity. To deal with the above issues, a novel dual observer approach, which combines adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF) and Takagi-Sugeno (T-S), is proposed in this paper. A full-car nonlinear model is first established to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling roll behavior under various road excitation.
Journal Article

A Methodology to Integrate a Nonlinear Shock Absorber Dynamics into a Vehicle Model for System Identification

High fidelity mathematical vehicle models that can accurately capture the dynamics of car suspension system are critical in vehicle dynamics studies. System identification techniques can be employed to determine model type, order and parameters. Such techniques are well developed and usually used on linear models. Unfortunately, shock absorbers have nonlinear characteristics that are non-negligible, especially with regard the vehicle's vertical dynamics. In order to effectively employ system identification techniques on a vehicle, a nonlinear mathematical shock absorber model must be developed and then coupled to the linear vehicle model. Such an approach addresses the nonlinear nature of the shock absorber for system identification purposes. This paper presents an approach to integrate the nonlinear shock absorber model into the vehicle model for system identification.