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Technical Paper

X-Ray Computed Tomography for Verification of Rivet Installation Assessment Techniques

1998-09-15
982140
High quality rivet installation is of critical importance to the aerospace industry, and the existence of gaps between the rivet head and the countersink is undesirable. Detection of gaps traditionally involves sectioning through rivet joints. Two concerns exist for this method of evaluation: it provides data only from the sectioned plane, and it has potential to alter the gaps. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to validate the effectiveness of the tradition sectioning method. It was revealed that the sectioning process generally increased the size of gaps. CT images also revealed that the gaps are not necessarily uniform around the rivet.
Technical Paper

Using Hardware Variability Control (HVC) Data for Process Improvements in an Automated/CNC Environment

1997-06-03
972206
This paper addresses the use of Hardware Variability Control (HVC) data to make process improvements in the assembly of the Next Generation 737 wing spars. The wing spars are the main structural component of the wing, and the two spars also make up two sides of each wing fuel tank. The wing spars are assembled using the Automated Spar Assembly Tool 3 (ASAT3). This paper covers the development of the ASAT3 HVC measurement plan, discusses the data collection methodology used, addresses process improvements made to the spar using the HVC data, and discusses next steps to improve the HVC plan.
Technical Paper

U.S. Military and Federal Government Cancellation of Part, Material, and Process Standards and Specifications

1997-06-03
972202
The Department of Defense has made progress in modernizing its procurement of weapon systems. Modernization has identified a need to address Federal and military standards and specifications for parts, materials, and processes that represent many de facto national standards. The aerospace industry is proposing a transition to commercial specifications that meet the needs of Acquisition Reform. This paper reviews the history and benefits of modernization and describes the transition process.
Technical Paper

The Elements of a Process Re-Engineering Program - A Case Study at the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group

1996-10-01
965512
Boeing is currently fundamentally rethinking and radically simplifying the processes related to airplane configuration definition and production. The presentation will describe reasons for embarking on this effort and a description of the fundamental production control processes Boeing will deploy. Process Engineering will be described using Boeing's program as an example.
Technical Paper

Temperature Issues for a Mach 2.4 High Speed Civil Transport

1994-10-01
942160
The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) will be exposed to elevated temperatures during Mach 2.4 supersonic flight. While not as extreme as those encountered in other high speed flight efforts (NASP, Shuttle), thermal effects will impact decisions in almost all areas of material selection and design. Accurate temperatures are required to evaluate materials, structural concepts, cooling requirements, etc. Analyses show the importance of structural configuration, use of fuel as a heat sink, and surface properties on structural temperatures. Capability to accurately determine convection and radiation boundary conditions is important for future HSCT design.
Technical Paper

TRANAIR Packaging for Ease-of-Use in Wing Design

1998-09-28
985575
Making TRANAIR an easier to use wing design tool is an important step toward reducing wing design cycle time. This paper shows the accuracy of TRANAIR in analysis mode for complex configurations with attached flow. This accuracy allows the design part to correctly predict improvements due to design changes. We show the current steps required for the MultiPoint (MP) design version of TRANAIR and the state of refinements toward increasing ease-of-use of this system. Finally, we discuss some of the proposed ways to further improve how the user interacts with the TRANAIR system for MP design.
Technical Paper

Standardizing Interactive Display Functions on the 777 Flight Deck

1994-10-01
942093
The 777 flight deck will introduce two new functions, the electronic checklist function (ECL) and the flight deck communication function (FDCF), on interactive displays. Two cursor control devices (CCD) provide each pilot control of these new functions. The appearance and operation of the displays were standardized by specifying a common user interface (CUI). Ease of training and operation dictated an integrated design approach wherein the design and operational requirements for FDCF and ECL were developed together with the CCD and CUI.
Technical Paper

Recent NASA Wake-Vortex Flight Tests, Flow-Physics Database and Wake-Development Analysis

1998-09-28
985592
A series of flight tests over the ocean of a four engine turboprop airplane in the cruise configuration have provided a data set for improved understanding of wake vortex physics and atmospheric interaction. An integrated database has been compiled for wake-characterization and validation of wake-vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake-vortex flight tests, the data processing, the database development and access, and results obtained from preliminary wake-characterization analysis using the data sets.
Technical Paper

Optical End-Point Control for NC Machinery

1997-06-03
972253
A novel method for improving the accuracy and lowering the cost of large NC drilling machines has been developed. The method employs a 3D tracking interferometer measurement system to measure and correct the position of the machine end-effector prior to each drill operation. This method eliminates many geometric and thermal errors inherent to NC drilling machines. The paper discusses the background, theory, initial implementation, test results and future enhancements of the method.
Technical Paper

Laser Referenced Cargo Floor Installation on the 777

1996-10-01
965537
During the commercial aircraft assembly process, many interrelated installations require alignment to a common reference centerline or location to a common reference plane. A rotational laser can be used to establish a vertical, horizontal, or other desired plane orientation to serve as a common installation reference for multiple assemblies. The cargo floor installation in the lower lobe of the 777 forward section requires that three physically separate cargo floor sections be aligned to a common centerline and lie in the same horizontal plane. Two rotational lasers are used in conjunction with laser positioning equipment, digital laser targets, and conventional tooling hardware to meet the installation criteria and provide a reliable, repeatable process.
Technical Paper

Integration of Primary Flight Symbology and the External Vision System of the High Speed Civil Transport

1996-10-01
965550
Boeing is participating in a research program to study the feasibility of building a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). A program assumption is that the aircraft will not have a droop nose capability, requiring that the forward facing windows be replaced by large format displays showing the outside scene. We refer to this display as the External Vision System (XVS). The issues being addressed in this paper involve the integration of primary flight symbology into the XVS display. We point out how this integrated display is unique, falling someplace between a standard head-down primary flight display and a head-up display. We describe potential advantages of an integrated display as well as point out a number of possible problem areas. High level goals driving the display design are presented. We finish by describing a number of research and development issues, that if resolved, would contribute to the design effort.
Technical Paper

Initiatives for the Elimination of Unapproved Parts

1998-04-06
981232
This paper briefly discusses the early background leading up to establishing the FAA Suspected Unapproved Parts (SUPs) Program Office and the Industry SUPs Steering Team. The various categories of parts comprising SUPs is reviewed. The main body of the paper reviews the various FAA and industry initiatives which target elimination of suspected unapproved parts.
Technical Paper

High Speed Carbide Drilling in Aluminum

2000-09-19
2000-01-3020
Implementation of a high speed drill motor with solid carbide drill bits, along with careful attention to all details of the process, has resulted in an extraordinary increase in drill bit life, as well as improvements in cycle time and hole quality. During the implementation of a new wing panel riveting machine for use on the 737NG and 757 models a major goal was to significantly improve the drilling process. The phase out of Freon™ as a coolant/lubricant on existing machines forced changes to the drilling process, which resulted in a significant reduction in drill life, from an average of approximately 1,500 holes per drill to 305 holes. The new process on the new machine has increased the average drill life 11,375% to over 35,000 holes, decreased the drill cycle time by 80%, and improved hole quality.
Technical Paper

GD& T for Flexible Contoured Structures

1997-10-01
975604
The aerospace industry uses flexible complex contoured structure in aircraft. To take advantage of advancements in engineering design, assembly methods, and inspection tools, the dimensional requirements for this kind of structure can be specified using Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) per ASME Y14.5M-1994, “Dimensioning and Tolerancing.” The 1994 revision of this standard includes some new features which can be used to specify the dimensional requirements for flexible complex contoured structure, but there are no examples on how GD&T can or should be applied. This paper gives some examples how GD&T can be applied on flexible complex contoured structure and how this usage specifies the dimensional requirements for such parts.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Capacitance Sensing Probes for Hole and Countersink Diameter Measurements on Airplane Wing Panels

1998-09-15
982139
Capacitance sensing probes have been in use for a number of years in the airframe assembly industry for characterizing diameters in straight and tapered fastener holes. A new type of capacitance probe was recently developed that simultaneously characterizes the countersink and shank diameters in holes drilled for index head rivets. The probe design and a unique methodology for a systems approach to qualifying a multi-probe inspection facility are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Design of the Electronic Checklist on the Boeing 777 Flight Deck

1995-09-01
951986
The purposes of an airplane checklist are to (1) help the pilot and copilot ensure that the airplane is configured correctly before each phase of flight and (2) facilitate the management of nonnormal conditions. The use of a checklist has been essential in standardizing aircrew procedures. In 1996, Boeing will introduce the world's first airline-modifiable electronic checklist system on the Boeing 777 flight deck. Its design specifically addresses many traditional paper checklist problems associated with crew errors. Directed by airline design requirements, Boeing used a consistent, pilot-oriented flight deck philosophy to address the pilot interface, system functionality, and automation tradeoff questions.
Technical Paper

Continuing Airworthiness Challenges

1994-03-01
940047
Structural safety is an evolutionary accomplishment, and attention to detail design features is key to its achievement. A multitude of design considerations is involved in ensuring the structural integrity of Boeing jet transports that have common design concepts validated by extensive analyses, tests, and three decades of service. The active service life of commercial airplanes has increased in recent years as a result of increasing costs for fleet replacements. As airplanes approach their design service objectives, the incidences of fatigue and corrosion may become widespread. Continuing airworthiness of the aging jet fleet requires diligent performance from the manufacturer, the airlines, and airworthiness authorities. This paper gives an overview of traditional Boeing maintenance-related activities, joint industry/airworthiness authority initiatives, and the anticipated benefits for future generations of commercial airplanes.
Technical Paper

Certification of Automatic Hydraulic-Squeeze Fastening Equipment

1999-10-06
1999-01-3440
With the increasing shift toward automation with respect to fastener installation, the need has evolved for clearer definition of the process capability of new fastener installation automation systems. In light of Engineering design requirements, and to address the process capability issue, Boeing has developed and implemented D6- 56617, a machine certification process for automated fastening of fuselage structure. This philosophy was a new approach in the following ways: 1. Previously, engineering oversight of automated fastening systems was limited to wing structure applications. 2. The process requires that process capabilities and performance of the automated machinery itself be established by test. 3. The process requires that detailed Process Control Documents be developed and followed. 4. The process links the statistical test data to the day to-day operating parameters of the machine.
Technical Paper

Boric/Sulfuric Acid Anodize-Alternative to Chromic Acid Anodize

1992-04-01
920944
At the 1990 Annual Aerospace/Airline Plating and Metal Finishing Forum, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Group presented information on boric acid/sulfuric acid anodizing (BSAA) as a replacement for chromic acid anodizing (CAA) to meet environmental regulations. This paper presents an update on the BSAA process and the status of production implementation. Background information will be reviewed including environmental issues and modifications of CAA to meet current EPA regulations. The results of BSAA process optimization, corrosion protection performance and compatibility with aircraft finishing will be given. Production implementation experience such as process control and facility requirements, including the status of BSAA for MIL-A-8625, Type IC (Anodizing, Non-chromic Acid, Meeting Type I Requirements) usage will be reviewed.
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