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Technical Paper

The Elements of a Process Re-Engineering Program - A Case Study at the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group

1996-10-01
965512
Boeing is currently fundamentally rethinking and radically simplifying the processes related to airplane configuration definition and production. The presentation will describe reasons for embarking on this effort and a description of the fundamental production control processes Boeing will deploy. Process Engineering will be described using Boeing's program as an example.
Technical Paper

Temperature Issues for a Mach 2.4 High Speed Civil Transport

1994-10-01
942160
The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) will be exposed to elevated temperatures during Mach 2.4 supersonic flight. While not as extreme as those encountered in other high speed flight efforts (NASP, Shuttle), thermal effects will impact decisions in almost all areas of material selection and design. Accurate temperatures are required to evaluate materials, structural concepts, cooling requirements, etc. Analyses show the importance of structural configuration, use of fuel as a heat sink, and surface properties on structural temperatures. Capability to accurately determine convection and radiation boundary conditions is important for future HSCT design.
Technical Paper

Laser Referenced Cargo Floor Installation on the 777

1996-10-01
965537
During the commercial aircraft assembly process, many interrelated installations require alignment to a common reference centerline or location to a common reference plane. A rotational laser can be used to establish a vertical, horizontal, or other desired plane orientation to serve as a common installation reference for multiple assemblies. The cargo floor installation in the lower lobe of the 777 forward section requires that three physically separate cargo floor sections be aligned to a common centerline and lie in the same horizontal plane. Two rotational lasers are used in conjunction with laser positioning equipment, digital laser targets, and conventional tooling hardware to meet the installation criteria and provide a reliable, repeatable process.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Capacitance Sensing Probes for Hole and Countersink Diameter Measurements on Airplane Wing Panels

1998-09-15
982139
Capacitance sensing probes have been in use for a number of years in the airframe assembly industry for characterizing diameters in straight and tapered fastener holes. A new type of capacitance probe was recently developed that simultaneously characterizes the countersink and shank diameters in holes drilled for index head rivets. The probe design and a unique methodology for a systems approach to qualifying a multi-probe inspection facility are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Continuing Airworthiness Challenges

1994-03-01
940047
Structural safety is an evolutionary accomplishment, and attention to detail design features is key to its achievement. A multitude of design considerations is involved in ensuring the structural integrity of Boeing jet transports that have common design concepts validated by extensive analyses, tests, and three decades of service. The active service life of commercial airplanes has increased in recent years as a result of increasing costs for fleet replacements. As airplanes approach their design service objectives, the incidences of fatigue and corrosion may become widespread. Continuing airworthiness of the aging jet fleet requires diligent performance from the manufacturer, the airlines, and airworthiness authorities. This paper gives an overview of traditional Boeing maintenance-related activities, joint industry/airworthiness authority initiatives, and the anticipated benefits for future generations of commercial airplanes.
Technical Paper

Certification of Automatic Hydraulic-Squeeze Fastening Equipment

1999-10-06
1999-01-3440
With the increasing shift toward automation with respect to fastener installation, the need has evolved for clearer definition of the process capability of new fastener installation automation systems. In light of Engineering design requirements, and to address the process capability issue, Boeing has developed and implemented D6- 56617, a machine certification process for automated fastening of fuselage structure. This philosophy was a new approach in the following ways: 1. Previously, engineering oversight of automated fastening systems was limited to wing structure applications. 2. The process requires that process capabilities and performance of the automated machinery itself be established by test. 3. The process requires that detailed Process Control Documents be developed and followed. 4. The process links the statistical test data to the day to-day operating parameters of the machine.
Technical Paper

Boric/Sulfuric Acid Anodize-Alternative to Chromic Acid Anodize

1992-04-01
920944
At the 1990 Annual Aerospace/Airline Plating and Metal Finishing Forum, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Group presented information on boric acid/sulfuric acid anodizing (BSAA) as a replacement for chromic acid anodizing (CAA) to meet environmental regulations. This paper presents an update on the BSAA process and the status of production implementation. Background information will be reviewed including environmental issues and modifications of CAA to meet current EPA regulations. The results of BSAA process optimization, corrosion protection performance and compatibility with aircraft finishing will be given. Production implementation experience such as process control and facility requirements, including the status of BSAA for MIL-A-8625, Type IC (Anodizing, Non-chromic Acid, Meeting Type I Requirements) usage will be reviewed.
Technical Paper

Assembly of Interior Composite Panels Utilizing Bonded Interlocking Joints

1997-06-03
972233
Most commercial aircraft interior panels are constructed of honeycomb cored composite sandwich panels. The panels are conventionally joined using metal brackets fastened with screws. Over the past decade, most major interior fabricators have been in transition to a method of joinery using bonded interlocking joints. This method has recently been adopted by Boeing, and is known here as Tab and Slot Joinery. These interlocking joints are defined and illustrated. The history of the development effort is outlined. Design considerations are developed. Test programs are described, including a designed experiment and a special case fatigue test. Advantages of this new joinery method over the conventional are shown.
Technical Paper

Application of Dimensional Management on 747 Fuselage

1997-10-13
975605
In today's competitive aircraft industry environment, new design, manufacturing, and assembly methods must be developed to lower costs and provide a more consistent product. One of the methods being implemented is Dimensional Management. Dimensional Management allows the evaluation of an entire manufacturing process and distribution of tolerances within that manufacturing process. Boeing has been working with Northrop-Grumman and several other suppliers to create a digital definition of the existing 747 fuselage design. This is part of an effort to implement a new manufacturing method known as Determinant Assembly. Dimensional Management plays a key role in implementing Determinant Assembly as well as incorporating into the engineering definition acceptance criteria that is better defined.
Technical Paper

An Accurate and Flexible System for Measuring Fastener Gage Protrusion

1995-09-01
952178
A new gage block system for measuring fastener gage protrusion has been developed that is precise and cost effective. A chamfered gage bore and shank constraint inserts provide improved wear characteristics and a ten to one reduction in block requirements. Accuracy and repeatability performance makes the system an attractive candidate for Statistical Process Control for the tightest tolerance fasteners. A new “block custom” calibration process assures accuracy and allows wider tolerances on gage block dimensions. Through better control of gage protrusion in fastener manufacturing, airplane manufacturers can expect improvements in fastener installation quality and eventually in customer satisfaction.
Technical Paper

Aluminum-Lithium (Alloy 2090) Fastening Evaluation for Commercial Aircraft Applications

1994-10-01
941844
During design of the 777 Airplane, light gage, near net section 2090-T86 extrusions were considered to reduce aircraft weight. The need to evaluate effects of fastener installation on 2090-T86 was indicated by a previous study documenting problems due to low short transverse tensile strength. Tests by Boeing installing fasteners into holes using interference fits showed 2090-T86 was more susceptible to damage from fastening than previously reported. Damage consisted of cracks normal to the short transverse direction around the periphery of the fastener hole. This report documents the test program conducted at Boeing.
Technical Paper

Airplane Technologies to Reduce Jet Fuel Use

2001-09-11
2001-01-2985
The commercial airplane designer is faced with the challenge of balancing many factors to achieve an optimal airplane design, namely, how to reduce jet fuel use while also maintaining or improving emissions, noise, cruise speed, operating cost, range, reliability, maintainability, payload, takeoff field length, initial cruise altitude, and landing speed. Often, fuel efficiency improvements run counter to other design constraints imposed on the aircraft manufacturer by market forces. However, emerging engine and airframe technologies will help to continue the historical trend towards reduced fuel use. Five concept airplane designs will be reviewed that use future technology to enable the design of more environmentally friendly airplanes.
Technical Paper

777 Automated Spar Assembly Tool - Second Generation

1995-09-01
952172
The Automated Spar Assembly Tool (ASAT II) at the Everett, Washington, 777 Boeing manufacturing facility could be the largest automated fastening cell in the commercial aircraft industry. Based on the success of the ASAT I, Boeing's 767 spar assembly tool, the 285-foot long ASAT II cell was needed to accurately position and fasten the major spar components (chords and web), then locate and fasten over 100 components (ribposts and stiffeners) to assemble the 777 forward and rear wing spars. From its inception in 1990 to the first drilled hole in January 1993 and through two years of spar production, the more advanced ASAT II has proven to be a greater success than even its 767 ASAT I predecessor. This massive automated fastening system consistently provides accurate hole preparation, inspection, and installation of three fastener types ranging from 3/16 inches to 7/16 inches in diameter.
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