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Technical Paper

Tool Wear and Hole Quality in Drilling of Composite/Titanium Stacks with Carbide and PCD Tools

This paper reports on the experimental study of carbide and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) drills used for drilling composite/titanium stacks. Materials systems used in this study were multi-directional carbon fiber in an epoxy matrix and titanium 6Al-4V. The drill materials included tungsten carbide (WC; 9%Co ultra fine grain) and polycrystalline diamond (PCD; bimodal grade). Torque and thrust force were measured during the drilling experiments. Tool wear of both drills was periodically examined during the drilling tests using various microscopic techniques such as optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Effect of tool materials and process condition on hole quality parameters such as hole diameter, surface roughness, and titanium burrs, were examined. Dissimilar mechanical and thermal properties of the stacks affected the tool life and resulted in the decreased hole quality for both cutting tool materials, although to a differing degree.
Journal Article

Software Tools for Efficient Model-Based Design of Energy Optimized Aircraft

The diverse and complex requirements of next-generation energy optimized aircraft (EOA) demand detailed transient and dynamic model-based design (MBD) to ensure the proper operation of numerous interconnected and interacting subsystems. In support of the U.S. Air Force's Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) program, several software tools have been developed and are in use that aid in the efficient MBD of next-generation EOA. Among these are subsystem model libraries, automated subsystem model verification test scripts, a distributed co-simulation application, and tools for system configuration, EOA mission building, data logging, plotting, post-processing, and visualization, and energy flow analysis. Herein, each of these tools is described. A detailed discussion of each tool's functionality and its benefits with respect to the goal of achieving successful integrated system simulations in support of MBD of EOA is given.
Journal Article

Smart Portable Tools: The Practical Solution to Agile Assembly

Fully autonomous systems are seen as the ultimate solution to all manufacturing problems due to their consistent quality and ability to improve rates, but they also have one key disadvantage: Limited equipment versatility. This shortcoming becomes most apparent when trying to apply automation to aircraft final assembly. The variety of jobs is great and would necessitate the development of many unique solutions. Therefore a robotic system designed for one job on one aircraft version might be useless on the next version. Also there are many tight spaces and complex jobs where automation is just not practical, meaning that workers with portable tools will always have some presence in production. The modern smart portable tool as exemplified by the Novator PM Series orbital drill motor is capable of matching the quality and speed of a robotic system while still maintaining the ability to be applicable over a wide variety of jobs.
Technical Paper

Sensory Prognostics and Management System (SPMS)

The Sensory Prognostics and Management Systems (SPMS) program sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration and Boeing developed and evaluated designs to integrate advanced diagnostic and prognostic (i.e., Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) or Health Management (HM)) capabilities onto commercial airplanes. The objective of the program was to propose an advanced HM system appropriate for legacy and new aircraft and examine the technical requirements and their ramifications on the current infrastructure and regulatory guidance. The program approach was to determine the attractive and feasible HM applications, the technologies that are required to cost effectively implement these applications, the technical and certification challenges, and the system level and business consequences of such a system.
Technical Paper

In-Silico Environment for Designing Anti-icing Surfaces

In-flight icing occurs when supercooled water droplets suspended in the atmosphere impinge on cold aircraft surfaces. Thin layers of accreted ice significantly increase aerodynamic drag while thick layers of ice severely alter the aerodynamics of control surfaces and lift. Chunks of ice can break away from the airframe and cowlings and be ingested into engines causing considerable damage. Developing durable surfaces that prevent the nucleation of supercooled water or reduce ice adhesion to a point where airstream shear forces can remove it would allow the design of a more robust, energy efficient deicing/anti-icing system for aircraft and other applications. In this work, a simulations based framework is developed to predict anti-icing performance of various nanocomposite coatings under the in-flight environment.
Journal Article

Health Ready Components-Unlocking the Potential of IVHM

Health Ready Components are essential to unlocking the potential of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) as it relates to real-time diagnosis and prognosis in order to achieve lower maintenance costs, greater asset availability, reliability and safety. IVHM results in reduced maintenance costs by providing more accurate fault isolation and repair guidance. IVHM results in greater asset availability, reliability and safety by recommending preventative maintenance and by identifying anomalous behavior indicative of degraded functionality prior to detection of the fault by other detection mechanisms. The cost, complexity and effectiveness of the IVHM system design, deployment and support depend, to a great extent, on the degree to which components and subsystems provide the run-time data needed by IVHM and the design time semantic data to allow IVHM to interpret those messages.
Technical Paper

Enhancements to Software Tools and Progress in Model-Based Design of EOA on the INVENT Program

The diverse and complex requirements of next-generation energy optimized aircraft (EOA) demand detailed transient and dynamic model-based design (MBD) to ensure the proper operation of numerous interconnected and interacting subsystems across multiple disciplines. In support of the U.S. Air Force's Integrated Vehicle Energy Technology (INVENT) program, several MBD-derived software tools, including models of EOA technologies, have been developed. To validate these models and demonstrate the performance of EOA technologies, a series of Integrated Ground Demonstration (IGD) hardware tests are planned. Several of the numerous EOA software tools and MBD-based processes have been updated and adapted to support this activity.
Journal Article

A Framework for Developing an EPS Health Management System

This paper describes a framework for developing an Integrated Electrical Power System (EPS) Health Management System. The framework is based on the perspective that health management, unlike other capabilities, is not a self-contained, stand-alone system, but is rather an integral part of every aircraft subsystem, system, and the entire platform. Ultimately, the objective is to improve the entire maintenance, logistics and fleet operations support processes. This perspective requires a new mindset when applying systems engineering design principles. The paper provides an overview description of the framework, the potential benefits of the approach and some critical design and implementation issues based on current development efforts.