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Technical Paper

Validation of a Hot-Air Anti-icing Simulation Code

This paper presents CHT2D, a 2D hot air anti-icing simulation tool developed by the Advanced Aerodynamics group of Bombardier Aerospace. The tool has been developed from two main modules: the ice prediction code CANICE and the Navier-Stokes solver NSU2D, which is used to solve the hot air internal flow. A “weak” coupling beween the two modules based on function calls and information exchange has been priviledged. Three validation test cases are presented: for dry air conditions. Predictions from CHT2D agree quite well with the experiments. Preliminary results are also presented for a test case in icing conditions for different heat loads from the anti-icing system, to study the effect on the accumulated ice.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Wing Leading Edge Contamination on the Stall Characteristics of Aircraft

Lessons learned from analysis of in-service icing incidents are described. The airfoil and wing design factors that define an aircraft's natural stall characteristics are explored, including the aerodynamic effects of contamination. Special attention is given to contamination in the form of “roughness” along wing leading edges typical of frost. In addition, the key aerodynamic effects of ground proximity and sideslip/crosswind during the take-off rotation are described. An empirical method, that can be used to predict a wing's sensitivity to wing leading edge roughness, is demonstrated. The paper explores the in-service differences of aircraft that incorporate “hard”, “supercritical” and “slatted” wings. The paper attempts to explain why the statistical evidence appears to favor the slatted wing for winter operations.
Technical Paper

Tailplane with Positive Camber for Reduced Elevator Hinge Moment

The Learjet 85 is a business jet with an unpowered manual elevator control and is designed for a maximum dive Mach number of 0.89. During the early design, it was found that the stick force required for a 1.5g pull-up from a dive would exceed the limit set by FAA regulations. A design improvement of the tailplane was initiated, using 2D and 3D Navier-Stokes CFD codes. It was discovered that a small amount of positive camber could reduce the elevator hinge moment for the same tail download at high Mach numbers. This was the result of the stabilizer forebody carrying more of the tail download and the elevator carrying less. Consequently, the elevator hinge-moment during recovery from a high-speed dive was lower than for the original tail. Horizontal tails are conventionally designed with zero or negative camber since a positive camber can have adverse effects on tail stall and drag.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Airfoil Performance with Leading Edge Roughness

Leading edge roughness is known to influence the aerodynamic performance of wings and airfoil sections. Aerodynamic tests show that these effects vary with the type and texture of the applied roughness. The quantification of the relationship between different types of roughness is not very clear. This makes the comparison of results from different tests difficult. An attempt has been made to find a relationship between randomly distributed roughness using cylinders of different heights and densities, roughness using ballotini, and equivalent sand grain roughness. A CFD method based on the Cebeci-Chang roughness model was used to generate correlations with experimental data. It is found that the variation of the size and density of individual roughness elements can be represented using one roughness parameter, Rp, which is equivalent to the sand grain roughness parameter used in the Cebeci-Chang model.
Journal Article

Monitor Points Method for Loads Recovery in Static/Dynamic Aeroelasticity Analysis with Hybrid Airframe Representation

With the high design/performance requirements in modern aircrafts, the need for a flexible airframe structural modeling strategy during the different phases of the airframe development process becomes a paramount. Hybrid structural modeling is a technique that is used for aircraft structural representation in which several Finite Element Modeling concepts are employed to model different parts of the airframe. Among others, the Direct Matrix Input at a Grid-Point (DMIG) approach has shown superiority in developing high fidelity, yet, simplified Finite Element Models (FEM's). While the deformation approach is a common choice for loads recovery in structures represented by stick models, using structural models simulated by the DMIG representation requires the adoption of a different approach for loads recovery applications, namely, the momentum approach.
Technical Paper

Equivalent Sand Grain Roughness Correlation for Aircraft Ice Shape Predictions

Many uncertainties in an in-flight ice shape prediction are related to convection heat transfer coefficient, which in turn depends on the flow, turbulence and laminar/turbulent transition models. The height of ice roughness element used to calculate the Equivalent Sand Grain Roughness height (ESGR) is a very important input of the turbulence model as it strongly influences the shape of the accreted ice. Unfortunately, for in-flight icing, the ESGR is unknown and generally calculated using semi-empirical models or empirical correlations based on a particular ice shape prediction code. Each ice shape prediction code is unique due to the models and correlations used and the numerical implementation. Ice roughness correlations do not have the same effect in each ice shape prediction code. A new approach to calculate the ESGR correlation taking into consideration the particularities of the ice shape prediction code is developed, calibrated and validated.
Technical Paper

Drag Prediction Using the Euler/Navier-Stokes Code FANSC

Aerodynamic drag predictions using the block-structured Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver FANSC, developed at Bombardier Aerospace for the analysis of the flow around complete aircraft configurations, are presented in this paper. To this end, the traditional far-field method, complemented with semi-empirical relations, is used for evaluating induced, form and viscous drag on a complete aircraft configuration from Euler/boundary-layer flow solutions. Recent advances in Navier-Stokes CFD methods technology are also used to yield near-field integration of the aerodynamic forces. Theoretical developments are briefly discussed on the numerical methods: the basic flow solver (discretization, time-integration, etc…), Euler/boundary-layer coupling methods (direct, semi-inverse and quasi-simultaneous) and Navier-Stokes method. The far-field and near-field drag prediction methods are discussed with emphasis on the relationship they carry with the CFD flow solution.
Technical Paper

Design of a Human-Powered Aircraft Applying Multidisciplinary Optimization Method

A particular field of aerospace engineering is dedicated to the study of aircraft that are so energetically efficient, that the power produced by a human being enables it to takeoff and maintain sustained flight without any external or stored energy. These aircraft are known as Human-Powered Aircraft (HPA). The objective of the present work is to design a single-seat HPA applying multidisciplinary optimization techniques with an objective function that minimizes both the power required and the stall speed, representing respectively, an easier and safer aircraft to fly. In the first stage, a parametric synthesis model is created to generate random aircraft and assess their aerodynamic(utilizing a 3D vortex lattice method code and a component drag buildup method for the drag polar), stability and control(utilizing static stability criteria), weight (estimated using historical data) and performance (using the thus calculated data) characteristics.
Technical Paper

Considerations on the Use of Hydrophobic, Superhydrophobic or Icephobic Coatings as a Part of the Aircraft Ice Protection System

Ice adhesion on critical aircraft surfaces is a serious potential hazard that runs the risk of causing accidents. For this reason aircraft are equipped with active ice protection systems (AIPS). AIPS increase fuel consumption and add complexity to the aircraft systems. Reducing energy consumption of the AIPS or replacing the AIPS by a Passive Ice Protection System (PIPS), could significantly reduce aircraft fuel consumption. New coatings with superhydrophobic properties have been developed to reduce water adherence to surfaces. Superhydrophobic coatings can also reduce ice adhesion on surfaces and are used as icephobic coatings. The question is whether superhydrophobic or icephobic coatings would be able to reduce the cost associated with AIPS.