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Technical Paper

Valve-Event Modulated Boost System

2010-04-12
2010-01-1222
Prior work with the concept of dividing the exhaust process into an early and late phase has shown the potential of applying only the early stage (blow-down) of the exhaust period directly to a turbocharger or turbocharger system, and the later stage (scavenge) arranged to bypass the turbine. In this manner, the exhaust backpressure required to extract high turbine work from the engine can be isolated from the displacement phase of the exhaust stroke and thereby greatly reduce the exhaust pumping work and Residual Gas Fraction. In previously-published efforts, the challenges of valve-event control and high turbine inlet temperature have been revealed. The BorgWarner Engine Systems Group, in conjunction with Presta, has applied a cam-phaser controlled concentric camshaft system to the exhaust side of a divided exhaust port 4-valve per cylinder DOHC GDI engine, to enable variable phasing between the Blow-down and Scavenge cam profiles.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 2, Engine Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0242
As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Recent studies have shown that the following technologies offer significant improvements to the efficiency of turbocharged GDI engines: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled EGR (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency-improving technologies are individually well-understood, in this study we directly compare these technologies to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). The technologies tested are applied to a boosted and direct injected (DI) gasoline engine and evaluated both individually and combined.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 1, Engine Simulation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0245
As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Promising technologies under consideration are: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled exhaust gas recirculation (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency improving options are well-understood individually, in this study we directly compare them to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). For this purpose we undertake a comprehensive simulation of the above technology options using a GT-Power model of the engine with a kinetics based knock combustion sub-model to optimize the fuel efficiency, taking into account the total in-cylinder dilution effects, due to internal and external EGR, on the combustion.
Journal Article

Influence of Pre Turbo Catalyst Design on Diesel Engine Performance, Emissions and Fuel Economy

2008-04-14
2008-01-0071
This paper gives a thorough review of the HC/CO emissions challenge and discusses the effects of different diesel oxidation catalyst designs in a pre turbine and post turbine position on steady state and transient turbo charger performance as well as on HC and CO tailpipe emissions, fuel economy and performance of modern Diesel engines. Results from engine dynamometer testing are presented. Both classical diffusive and advanced premixed Diesel combustion modes are investigated to understand the various effects of possible future engine calibration strategies.
Technical Paper

Enabling Components for Future Clean Diesel Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1530
Diesel engines nowadays are faced with enhanced emission standards, which limit further improvements in fuel economy. In order to meet future emission regulations in a cost effective way, high levels of EGR are needed. One way of increasing the level of EGR with current technology boosting systems is to utilize low pressure loop EGR. This paper discusses the benefits of low pressure loop EGR as well as some of the challenges. A new component is presented which overcomes some of these challenges. Also, modifications to current technology compressor wheels are presented which enable the compressor wheel to survive ingestion of exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Development of a 48 V P0 Demonstration Vehicle with eBooster® Air Charging

2018-04-03
2018-01-0418
The design of a demonstration vehicle is presented where improvements to the electrical and air induction systems are made which provide increased performance with improved fuel economy. This is made possible by a 48 V architecture which enables the deployment of new components, specifically a belted motor generator unit (MGU) and electrically-driven compressor (eBooster®). The synergy between these components enables energy efficient means to collect regenerated energy and provide added torque, faster engine response, and extended engine off operation among a list of added features. Control features and strategy are highlighted along with simulation and vehicle test data. Resultant performance and fuel economy benefits are reviewed which support the contention of 48 V being a cost effective architecture to enable CO2 reduction relative to a higher voltage hybrid.
Journal Article

Application of Concentric Cam Shafts to a Passenger Car Diesel Engine to Significantly Improve the NOx /Soot Tradeoff

2011-09-11
2011-24-0134
Trying to improve the modern diesel engine's NOx/soot tradeoff without giving up fuel economy continues to be a core target for the engine development community. One of the options not yet fully investigated for the diesel is applying variable valve events to the engine breathing process. Already used in some heavy-duty applications, late intake valve closing has long been regarded as a possible strategy for small diesel engines. Single-cylinder tests applying fully variable valve events have demonstrated potential but also raised doubts about VVA benefits on automotive size diesel engines. Full engine testing using realistic valve train technology is seen as key to judging its true performance because it covers not only combustion benefits but also influences like engine pumping on emissions and CO₂. Different to past publications, this paper focuses on testing a production feasible variable valve train technology on a fully instrumented modern Common Rail diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction by Late Intake Valve Close and VTG Turbocharger Using 1-D Simulation

2008-10-06
2008-01-2444
A 1-D GT-Power model based investigation has been carried out to identify the impact of late intake valve closing (LIVC) on fuel economy and emission reduction of a modern small bore diesel engine. The diesel engine examined employed a variable turbine geometry (VTG) turbocharger with air-to-air charge cooler, cooled low pressure exhaust gas re-circulation (LP-EGR), and cooled high pressure exhaust gas re-circulation (HP-EGR). The LIVC system investigated varied the closing time of the intake valve by increasing or decreasing the dwell at the maximum valve lift point. This paper describes how the fuel economy and NOx emission of the diesel engine were affected by varying the intake valve closing time. The intake valve closing time was delayed by as much as 60 degrees.
Technical Paper

Advanced Thermal Management of a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0546
The paper presents a thermal management development capability and approach that was put in place to understand the relative benefit of various thermal components, layouts and control strategies. The use of the approach on a modern diesel powered vehicle is given. Thermal performance along with associated fuel economy improvements are shown over various test cycles including the FTP and US06. Results are given for a GT-Suite simulation as well as on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Advanced Thermal Management Strategies

2013-10-07
2013-36-0542
The paper presents the results of applying an advanced thermal management approach to a light duty commercial vehicle. The relative benefit of various thermal components, layouts and control strategies is discussed. Thermal performance along with associated fuel economy improvements are shown over various test cycles including the FTP, NEDC and US06. Results are given for a GT-Suite simulation as well as on vehicle.
Journal Article

Active Thermal Management with a Dual Mode Coolant Pump

2013-04-08
2013-01-0849
A GT-suite commercial code was used to develop a fully integrated model of a light duty commercial vehicle with a V6 diesel engine, to study the use of a BorgWarner dual mode coolant pump (DMCP) in active thermal management of the vehicle. An Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) was used to validate the simulation results with the experimental data. The conventional mechanical pump from the validated model was then replaced with the dual mode coolant pump. The control algorithm for the pump was based on controlling the coolant temperature with pump speed. Maximum electrical speed of the pump and the efficiency of the pump were used to determine whether the pump should run in mechanical or electrical mode. The model with the dual mode coolant pump was simulated for the UDDS cycle to demonstrate the effectiveness of control strategy.
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