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Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements and Analysis of In-Cylinder Gases and Particulates in Compression-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961168
The extraction of small quantities of gas and particulates from diesel engine cylinders allows time-resolved gas and particulate analysis to be performed outside the engine during a short window of a few degrees crank angle at any stage of the engine cycle. The paper describes the design features and operation of a high-speed, intermittent sampling valve for extracting in-cylinder gases and particulates from diesel engines at any selected instant of the combustion process. Various sampling valve configurations are outlined. Detailed analysis of gas flow through the valve and the performance of the electromagnetic actuator and plunger are given in order to facilitate the design of the sampling valve. Finally, examples of the uses of the sampling valve in a direct-injection diesel engine are provided. These demonstrate how gaseous emissions such as NOx, uHC, CO2, and particulate emissions can be sampled at any part of the combustion process and analysed.
Journal Article

The Performance Characteristics of an Production Oriented Air Hybrid Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0821
In a previous paper [ 1 ], the authors have proposed a cost effective air hybrid concept based on a proprietary intake system and cam profile switching (CPS) system [ 2 ]. It was shown through engine simulations that the pneumatic hybrid operation could be achieved with about 15% regenerative efficiency. The proposed air hybrid operation can be achieved with proven technologies and engine components and hence it represents a cost-effective, reliable and quick deployable solution for low carbon vehicles. In this work, a four-cylinder 2 litre diesel engine has been modelled to operate on refined air hybrid engine configurations and the braking and motoring performance of each configuration have been studied. Both air hybrid systems can be constructed with production technologies and incur minimum changes to the existing engine design.
Technical Paper

The Measurement and Analysis of Swirl in Steady Flow

1992-09-01
921642
The influence of swirl on combustion in diesel and spark ignition engines is reviewed briefly, and this leads to a resumé of the swirl measuring techniques. The numerous ways of analysing swirl data are summarised and the relations between the different swirl parameters are presented. Experimental results are presented from a diesel engine in which the flow has been measured by a hot wire anemometer, a paddle wheel and a swirl torquemeter. The performance of the different measurement techniques is compared. Further results are presented (from a spark ignition engine) which illustrate the influence of the inlet port, manifold and entry conditions on the swirl measurements. Integration techniques are reviewed for producing a single swirl parameter to characterise the combined performance of the inlet port, valve and camshaft. Finally, the difficulty in standardising measurements of barrel swirl are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Intake Port and Pent-Roof Structures on Reversed Tumble Generation of a Poppet-Valved Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1130
In order to minimize short-circuiting of the intake charge in the poppet-valved 2-stroke engine, measures are taken to generate reversed tumble in the cylinder. In this study, five different types of intake ports and three types of pent-roof geometries were designed and analysed of their ability to generate and maintain reversed tumble flows by means of CFD simulation for their intake processes on a steady flow rig. Their flow characteristics were then assessed and compared to that of the vertical top-entry ports. Results show that the side-entry port designs can achieve comparatively high tumble intensity. The addition of flow deflectors inside the side-entry ports does not have much effect on the reversed tumble ratio. The top-entry ports have the highest flow coefficient among all the intake ports examined as well as producing strong reversed tumble. It is also found that the pent-roof at a wider angle helps to strengthen the tumble intensity due to increased air flow rate.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-injection Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960841
A number of tests were conducted on a 2.5 litre, high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine running at various loads and speeds. The aim of the tests was to gain understanding which would lead to more effective use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for controlling exhaust NOx whilst minimising the penalties of increased smoke emission and fuel consumption. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, in-cylinder sampling of combustion gases was carried out using a fast-acting, snatch-sampling valve. The results showed that the effectiveness of EGR was enhanced considerably by cooling the EGR. In addition to more effective NOx control, this measure also improved volumetric efficiency which assisted in the control of smoke emission and fuel consumption. This second of two papers on the use of EGR in diesel engines deals with the effects of EGR on soot emission and on the engine fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Combustion and NOx Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-injection Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960840
A number of tests were conducted on a 2.5 litre, high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine running at various loads and speeds. The aim of the tests was to gain understanding which would lead to more effective use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for controlling exhaust NOx. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, extensive in-cylinder sampling of combustion gases was carried out using a fast-acting, snatch-sampling valve. The results showed that the effectiveness of EGR in suppressing NOx was enhanced considerably by intercooling the inlet charge and by cooling the EGR. A companion paper (SAE 960841) deals with the effects of EGR on soot formation and emission [1].
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 3: Effects of Water Vapour

1997-05-01
971659
Water vapour is a main constituent of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines and its influence on combustion and emissions were investigated. The following effects of the water vapour were examined experimentally: the effect of replacing part of the inlet charge oxygen (dilution effect), the effect of the higher specific heat capacity of water vapour in comparison with that of oxygen it replaces (thermal effect), the effect of dissociation of water vapour (chemical effect), as well as the overall effect of water vapour on combustion and emissions. Water vapour was introduced into the inlet charge, progressively, so that up to 3 percent of the inlet charge mass was displaced. This was equivalent to the amount of water vapour contained in 52 percent by mass of EGR for the engine operating condition tested in this work.
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 2: Effects of Carbon Dioxide

1996-05-01
961167
This is the second of a series of papers on how exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) affects diesel engine combustion and emissions. It concentrates on the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is a principal constituent of EGR. Results are presented from a number of tests during which the nitrogen or oxygen in the engine inlet air was progressively replaced by CO2 and/or inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, inlet charge total mass rate and inlet charge temperature were kept constant. In one set of tests, some of the nitrogen in the inlet air was progressively replaced by a carefully controlled mixture of CO2 and argon. This ensured that the added gas mixture had equal specific heat capacity to that of the nitrogen being replaced. Thus, the effects of dissociated CO2 on combustion and emissions could be isolated and quantified (chemical effect).
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 1: Effect of Reducing Inlet Charge Oxygen

1996-05-01
961165
This is a first of a series of papers describing how the replacement of some of the inlet air with EGR modifies the diesel combustion process and thereby affects the exhaust emissions. This paper deals with only the reduction of oxygen in the inlet charge to the engine (dilution effect). The oxygen in the inlet charge to a direct injection diesel engine was progressively replaced by inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, total mass and the specific heat capacity of the inlet charge were kept constant. The use of inert gases for oxygen replacement, rather than carbon dioxide (CO2) or water vapour normally found in EGR, ensured that the effects on combustion of dissociation of these species were excluded. In addition, the effects of oxygen replacement on ignition delay were isolated and quantified.
Technical Paper

Review of Induction System Design and a Comparison Between Prediction and Results from a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

1992-09-01
921727
Induction tuning is now used on a wide range of spark ignition and diesel engines. It has also been the subject of research and publications over many years. The literature on induction tuning is reviewed here, and contradictions are identified and clarified. The use of resonator volume systems are also discussed and the various ways of modelling these systems are compared. In order to reconcile the differing theories, and to attempt to clarify the means by which induction tuning occurs, experiments have been undertaken with a single cylinder diesel engine. This was chosen as a single cylinder engine represents the simplest system, and a diesel engine does not have fuel in the induction system (which would otherwise modify the thermodynamic properties. The experimental measurements include the instantaneous air mass flow rate entering the induction system, and the pressure at the inlet port.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion in a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3608
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion has been achieved in a production type 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was based on a Ford 1.7L Zetec-SE 16V engine with a compression ratio of 10.3, using substantially standard components modified only in design dimensions to control the gas exchange process in order to significantly increase the trapped residuals. The engine was also equipped with Variable Cam Timing (VCT) on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. It was found that the largely increased trapped residuals alone were sufficient to achieve CAI in this engine and with VCT, a range of loads between 0.5 and 4 bar BMEP and engine speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm were mapped for CAI fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The measured CAI results were compared with those of Spark Ignition (SI) combustion in the same engine but with standard camshafts at the same speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Performance and Analysis of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with CAI Combustion

2002-03-04
2002-01-0420
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was realised in a production type 4-stroke 4-cylinder gasoline engine without intake charge heating or increasing compression ratio. The CAI engine operation was achieved using substantially standard components modified only in camshafts to restrict the gas exchange process The engine could be operated with CAI combustion within a range of load (0.5 to 4 bar BMEP) and speed (1000 to 3500 rpm). Significant reductions in both specific fuel consumption and CO emissions were found. The reduction in NOx emission was more than 93% across the whole CAI range. Though unburned hydrocarbons were higher under the CAI engine operation. In order to evaluate the potential of the CAI combustion technology, the European NEDC driving cycle vehicle simulation was carried out for two identical vehicles powered by a SI engine and a CAI/SI hybrid engine, respectively.
Technical Paper

On the Causes of In-Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Excursions During Load and Fuelling Transients in Port-Injected Spark-Ignition Engines

1996-02-01
960466
A novel experimental technique was used to investigate the in-cylinder air-fuel ratio excursions of a port-injected spark-ignition engine during load and fuel transients. This involved sampling directly from the engine cylinder using a fast flame ionisation detector (FID) system throughout an engine transient test. All tests were conducted with the coolant at the normal operating temperature of 90°C. The research engine used was a 1.6ltr four-cylinder multi-point fuel injection spark-ignition (SI) engine with four-valves-per-cylinder, with sequential injection and an electronic management system. The engine transient involved a rapid throttle opening within about 15msec. Various load steps were investigated at 2000rev/min along with the effect of altering the type of fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Measurements from a Natural Gas Fuelled Engine

1993-03-01
930927
A programme of work is being undertaken to improve the performance of a spark-ignited natural gas engine, that has been converted from a diesel engine. The aim of this work is to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. All experimental data and predictions refer to full throttle operation at 1500 rpm. The work to be reported here will include baseline tests that have been used to calibrate a two-zone combustion model. Particularly important are the predictions of the NOx emissions. The simulation has then been used to predict the effects of using: a higher compression ratio, and a faster burn combustion system. The design philosophy of the resulting fast burn combustion system is discussed, and some preliminary results are presented. There will be a discussion of the ignition parameters that affect the lean burn operation, and the effect of the spark plug gap position is discussed in the context of results from a phenomenological model of turbulent combustion.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Induced Pre-Ignition in an Optical SI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1222
This work was concerned with study of lubricant introduced directly into the combustion chamber and its effect on pre-ignition and combustion in an optically accessed single-cylinder spark ignition engine. The research engine had been designed to incorporate full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding peak in-cylinder pressures of up to 150bar. An experiment was designed where a fully formulated synthetic lubricant was deliberately introduced through a specially modified direct fuel injector to target the exhaust area of the bore. Optical imaging was performed via natural light emission, with the events recorded at 6000 frames per second. Two port injected fuels were evaluated including a baseline commercial grade gasoline and low octane gasoline/n-heptane blend. The images revealed the location of deflagration sites consistently initiating from the lubricant itself.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Split Injection in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0605
Over the last decade, the diesel engine has made dramatic progress in its performance and market penetration. However, in order to meet future emissions legislations, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matters' (PM) emissions will need to be reduced simultaneously. Nowadays researchers are focused on different combustion modes which can have a great potential for both low soot and low NOx. In order to achieve this, different injection strategies have been investigated. This study investigates the effects of split injection strategies with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on combustion performance and emissions in a single-cylinder direct injection optical diesel engine. The investigation is focused on the effects of injection timing of split injection strategies. A Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder optical engine was used in which conventional experimental methods like cylinder pressure data, heat release analysis and exhaust emissions analysis were applied.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cylinder Deactivation and Variable Valve Actuation on Gasoline Engine Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-1170
Increasingly stringent regulations on gasoline engine fuel consumption and exhaust emissions require additional technology integration such as Cylinder Deactivation (CDA) and Variable valve actuation (VVA) to improve part load engine efficiency. At part load, CDA is achieved by closing the inlet and exhaust valves and shutting off the fuel supply to a selected number of cylinders. Variable valve actuation (VVA) enables the cylinder gas exchange process to be optimised for different engine speeds by changing valve opening and closing times as well as maximum valve lift. The focus of this study was the investigation of effect of the integration of the above two technologies on the performance of a gasoline engine operating at part load conditions. In this study, a 1.6 Litre in-line 4-cylinder gasoline engine is modelled on engine simulation software and simulated data is analysed to show improvements in fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, pumping losses and effects on CO and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixture Excursions in a Port-Injected Engine During Fast Throttle Opening

1994-03-01
940382
Fast throttle opening in port-injected gasoline engines often results in a lean air-fuel ratio excursion lasting several engine cycles. Even when the engine is equipped with a three-way catalyst this lean excursion can lead to high tailpipe emissions. This paper will describe an in-cylinder method of measuring these air-fuel ratio excursions, using a fast flame ionisation detector. Examples will be given of air-fuel ratio excursions obtained on a four-valve-per-cylinder sequentially-injected gasoline engine equipped with a lambda sensor. The air-fuel ratio excursions together with measurements of the engine air flow are used to estimate me build up of the fuel film on the inlet manifold walls. Whilst air-fuel ratio excursions have been recorded previously by other investigators, their results were obtained from exhaust gas analysis using fast oxygen sensors.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Catalysts - A Novel Approach to Reduce Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

1995-10-01
952419
A novel approach was proposed and investigated to reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions from spark-ignition engines using in-cylinder catalysts. The unburned hydrocarbons in spark-ignition engines arise primarily from sources near the combustion chamber walls, such as flame quenching at the entrance of crevice volumes and at the combustion chamber wall, and the absorption and desorption of fuel vapour into oil layers on the cylinder wall. The proximity of these sources of unburned hydrocarbons to the wall means that they can be reduced significantly by simply using in-cylinder catalysts on the combustion chamber walls, in particular on the surfaces of the crevice volumes. A platinum-rhodium coating was deposited on the top and side surfaces of the piston crown, and its effects on the engine combustion and emission characteristics were examined in this experimental investigation.
Book

Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics

2001-01-30
This book provides a complete description of instrumentation and in-cylinder measurement techniques for internal combustion engines. Written primarily for researchers and engineers involved in advanced research and development of internal combustion engines, the book provides an introduction to the instrumentation and experimental techniques, with particular emphasis on diagnostic techniques for in-cylinder measurements.
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