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Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study on CAI Combustion in a GDI Engine with an Air-Assisted Injector

Controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion and engine performance and emission characteristics have been intensively investigated in a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was obtained by residual gas trapping. This was achieved by using low-lift short-duration cams and early closing the exhaust valves. Effects of EVC (exhaust valve closure) and IVO (intake valve opening) timings, spark timing, injection timing, coolant temperature, compression ratio, valve lift and duration, on CAI combustion and emissions were investigated experimentally. The results show that the EVC timing, injection timing, compression ratio, valve lift and duration had significant influences on CAI combustion and emissions. Early EVC and injection timing, higher compression ratio and higher valve lift could enhance CAI combustion. IVO timing had minor effect on CAI combustion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Effects of Fuel Injection Timings on CAI/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine

The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings, in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes.
Journal Article

Numerical Analysis of a Downsized 2-Stroke Uniflow Engine

In order to optimize the 2-stroke uniflow engine performance on vehicle applications, numerical analysis has been introduced, 3D CFD model has been built for the optimization of intake charge organization. The scavenging process was investigated and the intake port design details were improved. Then the output data from 3D CFD calculation were applied to a 1D engine model to process the analysis on engine performance. The boost system optimization of the engine has been carried out also. Furthermore, a vehicle model was also set up to investigate the engine in-vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Valve Timings on Lean Boost CAI Operation in a Two-stroke Poppet Valve DI Engine

Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. In order to take advantage of the inherent ability to retain a large and varied amount of residual at part-load condition and its potential to achieve extreme engine downsizing of a poppet valve engine running in the 2-stroke cycle, a single cylinder 4-valves camless direct injection gasoline engine has been developed and employed to investigate the CAI combustion process in the 2-stroke cycle mode. The CAI combustion is initiated by trapped residual gases from the adjustable scavenging process enabled by the variable intake and exhaust valve timings. In addition, the boosted intake air is used to provide the in-cylinder air/fuel mixture for maximum combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Innovative Ultra-low NOx Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion Process for Gasoline Engines: the 4-SPACE Project

The purpose of the 4-SPACE (4-Stroke Powered gasoline Auto-ignition Controlled combustion Engine) industrial research project is to research and develop an innovative controlled auto-ignition combustion process for lean burn automotive gasoline 4-stroke engines application. The engine concepts to be developed could have the potential to replace the existing stoichiometric / 3-way catalyst automotive spark ignition 4-stroke engines by offering the potential to meet the most stringent EURO 4 emissions limits in the year 2005 without requiring DeNOx catalyst technology. A reduction of fuel consumption and therefore of corresponding CO2 emissions of 15 to 20% in average urban conditions of use, is expected for the « 4-SPACE » lean burn 4-stroke engine with additional reduction of CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Biodiesel Blending on Particulate Matter (PM) Oxidation Characteristics

The use of diesel particulate filter [DPF] has become a standard in modern diesel engine after treatment technology. However pressure drop develops across the filter as PM accumulates and this requires quick periodic burn-out without incurring thermal runaway temperatures that could compromise DPF integrity during operation. Adequate understanding of soot oxidation is needed for design and manufacture of efficient filter traps for the engine system. In this study, we have examined the impact of blending biodiesel on oxidation of PM generated from a high speed direct injection [HSDI] diesel engine, which was operated with 20% [B20] and 40% [B40] blends of two biodiesel fuels. The PM samples were collected from the engine exhaust using a Pall Tissuquartz filter, the oxidation characteristics of the samples were carried out using thermogravimetric analyzer [TGA]. The biodiesel oxidation data obtained from pure petrodiesel was compared against the fuel blends.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition), is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions from gasoline engines. Therefore, it's seen as one of the best ways to meet future engine emissions and CO2 legislations. This combustion concept was achieved in a Ford production, port-injected, 4 cylinder gasoline engine. The only major modification to the original engine was the replacement of the original camshafts by a new set of custom made ones. The CAI operation was accomplished by means of using residual gas trapping made possible by the use of VCT (variable cam timing) on both intake and exhaust camshafts. When running on CAI, the engine was able to achieve CAI combustion with in a load range of 0.5 to 4.5 BMEP, and a speed range of 1000 to 3500 rpm. In addition, spark assisted CAI operation was employed to extend the operational range of low NOx and low pumping loss at part-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mechanical Turbo Compounding on a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

This paper presents the simulation study on the effects of mechanical turbo-compounding on a turbocharged diesel engine. A downstream power-turbine has been coupled to the exhaust manifold after the main turbocharger, in the aim to recover waste heat energy. The engine in the current study is Scania DC13-06, which 6 cylinders and 13 litre in capacity. The possibilities, effectiveness and working range of the turbo compounded system were analyzed in this study. The system was modeled in AVL BOOST, which is a one dimensional (1D) engine code. The current study found that turbo compounding could possibly recover on average 11.4% more exhaust energy or extra 3.7kW of power. If the system is mechanically coupled to the engine, it could increase the average engine power by up to 1.2% and improve average BSFC by 1.9%.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing and Valve Timings on CAI Operation in a Multi-Cylinder DI Gasoline Engine

CAI-combustion was achieved in a 4-cylinder four-stroke gasoline DI engine, with all cylinders running in CAI-mode. Standard components were used, with the exception of the camshafts which had been modified in order to restrict the gas exchange process. Results shown in the paper are between a load of 1.45 - 2.65 bar, an engine speed of 1500rpm and at a lambda value of 1.2. As is typical with this type of combustion, reductions in emissions of NOx were recorded as well as a slight decrease in HC emissions, also there was a reduction in the brake specific fuel consumption. The effect that injection timing on factors such as start of combustion, combustion duration and heat release rate are also investigated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ignition Timing on CAI Combustion in a Multi-Cylinder DI Gasoline Engine

Having achieved CAI-combustion in a 4-cylinder four-stroke gasoline DI engine the effects of ignition timing on the CAI combustion process were investigated through the introduction of spark. By varying the start of fuel injection, the effects on Indicated Specific values for NOx, HC, CO emissions and fuel consumption were investigated for CAI combustion. The CAI combustion process was then assisted by spark and three different ignition timings were studied. The effect on engine performance and the emission specific values were investigated further. The engine speed was maintained at 1500 rpm and lambda was kept constant at 1.2. It was found that with spark-assisted CAI, IMEP and ISNOx values increased as compared with typical CAI. ISHC values were lower for spark-assisted CAI as compared to typical CAI. Heat release data was studied to better understand this phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Mixture and CAI Combustion in a GDI Engine with an Air-Assisted Injector

The application of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is becoming of more interest due to its great potential of reducing both NOx emissions and fuel consumption. Injection timing has been known as an important parameter to control CAI combustion process. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on mixture and CAI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder GDI engine with an air-assisted injector. The liquid and vapour phases of fuel spray were measured using planar laser induced exciplex fluorescence (PLIEF) technique. The result shows that early injection led to homogeneous mixture but late injection resulted in serious stratification at the end of compression. CAI combustion in this study was realized by using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During tests, the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2400rpm and A/F ratio from stoichiometric to lean limit.
Technical Paper

Direct In-cylinder CO2 Measurements of Residual Gas in a GDI Engine for Model Validation and HCCI Combustion Development

An accurate prediction of residual burned gas within the combustion chamber is important to quantify for development of modern engines, especially so for those with internally recycled burned gases and HCCI operations. A wall-guided GDI engine has been fitted with an in-cylinder sampling probe attached to a fast response NDIR analyser to measure in-situ the cycle-by-cycle trapped residual gas. The results have been compared with a model which predicts the trapped residual gas fraction based on heat release rate calculated from the cylinder pressure data and other factors. The inlet and exhaust valve timings were varied to produce a range of Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) conditions and the results were compared between the actual measured CO2 values and those predicted by the model, which shows that the RGF value derived from the exhaust gas temperature and pressure measurement at EVC is consistently overestimated by 5% over those based on the CO2 concentrations.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Stroke/Four-Stroke Switching Gasoline Engine - The 2/4SIGHT Concept

The pursuit of flexibility is a recurring theme in engine design and development. Engines that are able to switch between the two-stroke operating cycle and four-stroke operation promise a great leap in flexibility. Such 2S-4S engines could then continuously select the optimum operating mode - including HCCI/CAI combustion - for fuel efficiency, emissions or specific output. With recent developments in valvetrain technology, advanced boosting devices, direct fuel injection and engine control, the 2S-4S engine is an increasingly real prospect. The authors have undertaken a comprehensive feasibility study for 2S-4S gasoline engines. This study has encompassed concept and detailed design, design analysis, one-dimensional gas dynamics simulation, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, and vehicle simulation. The resulting 2/4SIGHT concept engine is a 1.04 l in-line three-cylinder engine producing 230 Nm and 85 kW.
Technical Paper

Control of CAI Combustion Through Injection Timing in a GDI Engine With an Air- Assisted Injector

Controlled auto Ignition (CAI) combustion has great potential for reducing both NOx emissions and fuel consumption in IC engines and the application of direct injection technology to the CAI engine adds another dimension of control to the combustion process. In this work an air-assisted injection system was applied to an engine that used residual gas to initiate and control CAI combustion. Injections were performed at Exhaust valve closure (EVC), intake valve opening (IVO) and BDC of the intake/compression stroke and the effects on combustion phasing (i.e. ignition timing and burn duration), engine output, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions analyzed. Injection at EVC gave the best results in terms of engine output, operating range and combustion stability. Injection at IVO generally resulted in the lowest fuel consumption. It was found that injection timing is an effective means of controlling combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

CAI Combustion with Methanol and Ethanol in an Air-Assisted Direct Injection SI Engine

CAI combustion has the potential to be the most clean combustion technology in internal combustion engines and is being intensively researched. Following the previous research on CAI combustion of gasoline fuel, systematic investigation is being carried out on the application of bio-fuels in CAI combustion. As part of an on-going research project, CAI combustion of methanol and ethanol was studied on a single-cylinder direct gasoline engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was achieved by trapping part of burnt gas within the cylinder through using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During the experiment the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2100rpm and the air/fuel ratio was altered from the stoichiometry to the misfire limit. Their combustion characteristics were obtained by analysing cylinder pressure trace.
Technical Paper

Axial Flow Turbine Concept for Conventional and e-Turbocharging

Engine downsizing has established itself as one of the most successful strategies to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions in the automotive field. To this regard, a major role is played by turbocharging, which allows an increase in engine power density, so reducing engine size and weight. However, the need for turbocharging imposes some issues to be solved. In the attempt of mitigating turbo lag and poor low-end torque, many solutions have been presented in the open literature so far, such as: low inertia turbine wheels and variable geometry turbines; or even more complex concepts such as twin turbo and electrically assisted turbochargers. None of them appears as definitive, though. As a possible way of reducing turbine rotor inertia, and so the turbo lag, also the change of turbine layout has been investigated, and it revealed itself to be a viable option, leading to the use of mixed-flow turbines.
Technical Paper

4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion: a comparison between Naturally Aspirated and Turbocharged Operation

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions. Hence, it is regarded as one of the best ways to meet stringent future emissions legislation. It has however, still many problems to overcome, such as limited operating range. This combustion concept was achieved in a production type, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, in two separated tests: naturally aspirated and turbocharged. Very few modifications to the original engine were needed. These consisted basically of a new set of camshafts for the naturally aspirated test and new camshafts plus turbocharger for the test with forced induction. After previous experiments with naturally aspirated CAI operation, it was decided to investigate the capability of turbocharging for extended CAI load and speed range.