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Technical Paper

Tribological Behavior of Low Viscosity Lubricants in the Piston to Bore Zone of a Modern Spark Ignition Engine

Most major regional automotive markets have stringent legislative targets for vehicle greenhouse gas emissions or fuel economy enforced by fiscal penalties. Large improvements in vehicle efficiency on mandated test cycles have already taken place in some markets through the widespread adoption of technologies such as downsizing or dieselization. There is now increased focus on approaches which give smaller but significant incremental efficiency benefits such as reducing parasitic losses due to engine friction. Fuel economy improvements which achieve this through the development of advanced engine lubricants are very attractive to vehicle manufacturers due to their favorable cost-benefit ratio. For an engine with components which operate predominantly in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime, the most significant lubricant parameter which can be changed to improve the tribological performance of the system is the lubricant viscosity.
Technical Paper

The Drive for Minimum Fuel Consumption of Passenger Car Diesels: An Analytical Study to Evaluate Key Architectural Choices

Fuel consumption, and the physical behaviours behind it, have never been of greater interest to the automotive engineering community. The enormous design, development and infrastructure investment involved with a new engine family which will be in production for many years demands significant review of the base engine fundamental architecture. Future CO2 challenges are pushing car manufacturers to consider alternative engine configurations. As a result, a wide range of diesel engine architectures are available in production, particularly in the 1.4 to 1.6 L passenger car market, including variations in cylinder size, number of valves per cylinder, and bore:stroke (B/S) ratio. In addition, the 3 cylinder engine has entered the market in growing numbers, despite its historic NVH concerns. Ricardo has performed a generic architecture study for a midsize displacement engine in order to assess the pros and cons of each engine configuration.
Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Speed and Knocking Combustion of Gasoline, Ethanol and Hydrous Ethanol (10% Water) at Different Air/Fuel Ratios with Port-Fuel Injection

In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate characteristics of flame propagation and knocking combustion of hydrous (10% water content) and anhydrous ethanol at different air/fuel ratios in comparison to RON95 gasoline. Experiments were conducted in a full bore overhead optical access single cylinder port-fuel injection spark-ignition engine. High speed images of total chemiluminescence and OH* emission was recorded together with the in-cylinder pressure, from which the heat release data were derived. The results show that under the stoichiometric condition anhydrous ethanol and wet ethanol with 10% water (E90W10) generated higher IMEP with at an ignition timing slightly retarded from MBT than the gasoline fuel for a fixed throttle position. Under rich and stoichiometric conditions, the knock limited spark timing occurred at 35 CA BTDC whereas both ethanol and E90W10 were free from knocking combustion at the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Hybrid Electric Vehicle Components Sizing and Fuel Economy Prediction by Using Design of Experiments and Stochastic Process Model

The aim of this study is to evaluate the Fuel Economy (FE) over the driving cycle for a 48 Volt P2 technology vehicle with different component ratings (battery and electric machine) in the hybrid powertrain, using simulation and Design of Experiments (DoE) tools. The P2 architecture was selected for this study based on an initial assessment of a wide number of possibilities, using the Ricardo “Architecture Independent Modelling (AIM)” toolset. This allows rapid evaluation of different powertrain options independently of a defined hybrid control strategy. For the vehicle with P2 architecture, a DoE test matrix of battery capacity and electric machine power rating was created. The test matrix was then imported into the simulation environment to perform the driving cycle FE simulations. Then, a 48 V P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) FE emulator model was created and interrogated using model visualisation and optimisation methods.
Journal Article

Rolling Elements Assessment on Crankshaft Main Bearings of Light Duty Diesel Engine

Rolling element bearings are known to give reduced friction losses when compared to the hydrodynamic bearings typically used to support the crankshaft in multi-cylinder engines. This paper describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a modified 4 cylinder light duty Diesel production engine with rolling element bearings applied at the crankshaft main bearings in view of CO2 emission reduction. Selection of the most suitable type of roller bearings for this specific application was made. Technology development through multi-body dynamic simulation and component testing was done to assess the effect on rolling elements performance due to the key challenges inherent to such bearing solution: high instantaneous combustion load, lubrication with low viscosity and contaminated oil, and the cracking process to split the bearing outer raceway.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Reducing Diesel Emissions Dispersion by Coordinated Combustion Feedback Control

Future demands for very low emissions from diesel engines, without compromising fuel economy or driveability, require Engine Management Systems (EMS) capable of compensating for emissions dispersion caused by production tolerances and component ageing. The Advanced Diesel Engine Control (ADEC) Project, a collaboration between Ricardo and General Motors, is aimed at reducing engine-out emissions dispersion and enabling alternative combustion modes, such as Highly Premixed Cool Combustion (HPCC), in real-world scenarios. This is being achieved by high-level co-ordination of fuel, air and EGR in order to meet the conflicting performance requirements of current and future diesel engines. A sensor feasibility study was undertaken which included a number of new sensing technologies appropriate for future mass production. Two sensor types, namely cylinder pressure and accelerometer sensors, were then selected to demonstrate varying degrees of benefits versus sensor technology cost.
Technical Paper

Potentials of External Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Water Injection for the Improvement in Fuel Economy of a Poppet Valve 2-Stroke Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Two-Stage Serial Charging System

Engine downsizing is one of the most effective means to improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines because of lower pumping and friction losses. However, the occurrence of knocking combustion or even low-speed pre-ignition at high loads is a severe problem. One solution to significantly increase the upper load range of a 4-stroke gasoline engine is to use 2-stroke cycle due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. It was found that a 0.7 L two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve gasoline engine equipped with a two-stage serial boosting system, comprising a supercharger and a downstream turbocharger, could replace a 1.6 L naturally aspirated 4-stroke gasoline engine in our previous research, but its fuel economy was close to that of the 4-stroke engine at upper loads due to knocking combustion.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of In-Cylinder Flow for Fuel Stratification in a Three-Valve Twin-Spark-Plug SI Engine

In-cylinder flow was optimised in a three-valve twin-spark-plug SI engine in order to obtain good two-zone fuel fraction stratification in the cylinder by means of tumble flow. First, the in-cylinder flow field of the original intake system was measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results showed that the original intake system did not produce large-scale in-cylinder flow and the velocity value was very low. Therefore, some modifications were applied to the intake system in order to generate the required tumble flow. The modified systems were then tested on a steady flow rig. The results showed that the method of shrouding the lower part of the intake valves could produce rather higher tumble flow with less loss of the flow coefficient than other methods. The optimised intake system was then consisted of two shroud plates on the intake valves with 120° angles and 10mm height. The in-cylinder flow of the optimised intake system was investigated by PIV measurements.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Gasoline Spray with an Outward-Opening Piezoelectric Injector: A Comparative Study of Different Breakup Models

The outward-opening piezoelectric injector can achieve stable fuel/air mixture distribution and multiple injections in a single cycle, having attracted great attentions in direct injection gasoline engines. In order to realise accurate predictions of the gasoline spray with the outward-opening piezoelectric injector, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the gasoline spray with different droplet breakup models were performed in the commercial CFD software STAR-CD and validated by the corresponding measurements. The injection pressure was fixed at 180 bar, while two different backpressures (1 and 10 bar) were used to evaluate the robustness of the breakup models. The effects of the mesh quality, simulation timestep, breakup model parameters were investigated to clarify the overall performance of different breakup model in modeling the gasoline sprays.

Laser Diagnostics and Optical Measurement Techniques in Internal Combustion Engines

The increasing concern about CO2 emissions and energy prices has led to new CO2 emission and fuel economy legislation being introduced in world regions served by the automotive industry. In response, automotive manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers are developing a new generation of internal combustion (IC) engines with ultra-low emissions and high fuel efficiency. To further this development, a better understanding is needed of the combustion and pollutant formation processes in IC engines. As efficiency and emission abatement processes have reached points of diminishing returns, there is more of a need to make measurements inside the combustion chamber, where the combustion and pollutant formation processes take place. However, there is currently no good overview of how to make these measurements.
Technical Paper

Innovative Ultra-low NOx Controlled Auto-Ignition Combustion Process for Gasoline Engines: the 4-SPACE Project

The purpose of the 4-SPACE (4-Stroke Powered gasoline Auto-ignition Controlled combustion Engine) industrial research project is to research and develop an innovative controlled auto-ignition combustion process for lean burn automotive gasoline 4-stroke engines application. The engine concepts to be developed could have the potential to replace the existing stoichiometric / 3-way catalyst automotive spark ignition 4-stroke engines by offering the potential to meet the most stringent EURO 4 emissions limits in the year 2005 without requiring DeNOx catalyst technology. A reduction of fuel consumption and therefore of corresponding CO2 emissions of 15 to 20% in average urban conditions of use, is expected for the « 4-SPACE » lean burn 4-stroke engine with additional reduction of CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Biodiesel Blending on Particulate Matter (PM) Oxidation Characteristics

The use of diesel particulate filter [DPF] has become a standard in modern diesel engine after treatment technology. However pressure drop develops across the filter as PM accumulates and this requires quick periodic burn-out without incurring thermal runaway temperatures that could compromise DPF integrity during operation. Adequate understanding of soot oxidation is needed for design and manufacture of efficient filter traps for the engine system. In this study, we have examined the impact of blending biodiesel on oxidation of PM generated from a high speed direct injection [HSDI] diesel engine, which was operated with 20% [B20] and 40% [B40] blends of two biodiesel fuels. The PM samples were collected from the engine exhaust using a Pall Tissuquartz filter, the oxidation characteristics of the samples were carried out using thermogravimetric analyzer [TGA]. The biodiesel oxidation data obtained from pure petrodiesel was compared against the fuel blends.
Technical Paper

Implementing Detailed Chemistry and In-Cylinder Stratification into 0/1-D IC Engine Cycle Simulation Tools

Employing detailed chemistry into modern engine simulation technologies has potential to enhance the robustness and predictive power of such tools. Specifically this means significant advancements in the ability to compute the onset of ignition, low and high temperature heat release, local extinction, knocking, exhaust gas emissions formation etc. resulting in a set of tools which can be employed to carry out virtual engineering studies and add additional insight into common IC engine development activities such as computing IMEP, identifying safe/feasible operating ranges, minimizing exhaust gas emissions and optimizing operating strategy. However the adoption of detailed chemistry comes at a greater computational cost, this paper investigates the means to retain computational robustness and ease of use whist reducing computational timescales.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a 0-D/1-D/3-D Process for the Heat Release Prediction of a Gasoline Engine in the Early Development Stage

The automotive market’s need for ever cleaner and more efficient powertrains, delivered to market in the shortest possible time, has prompted a revolution in digital engineering. Virtual hardware screening and engine calibration, before hardware is available is a highly time and cost-effective way of reducing development and validation testing and shortening the time to bring product to market. Model-based development workflows, to be predictive, need to offer realistic combustion rate responses to different engine characteristics such as port and fuel injector geometry. The current approach relies on a combination of empirical, phenomenological and experienced derived tools with poor accuracy outside the range of experimental data used to validate the tool chain, therefore making the exploration of unconventional solutions challenging.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) Combustion with Positive Valve Overlap in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

The spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) is widely used to expend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), as it can reduce the high heat release rate effectively while partially maintain the advantage of high thermal efficiency and low NOx emission. But as engine load increases, the SACI combustion traditionally using negative valve overlap strategy (NVO) faces the drawback of higher pumping loss and limited intake charge availability, which lead to a restricted load expansion and a finite improvement of fuel economy. In this paper, research is focused on the SACI combustion using positive valve overlap (PVO) strategy. The characteristics of SACI combustion employing PVO strategy with external exhaust gas recirculation (eEGR) are investigated. Two types of PVO strategies are analyzed and compared to explore their advantages and defects, and the rules of adjusting SACI combustion with positive valve overlap are concluded.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition), is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions from gasoline engines. Therefore, it's seen as one of the best ways to meet future engine emissions and CO2 legislations. This combustion concept was achieved in a Ford production, port-injected, 4 cylinder gasoline engine. The only major modification to the original engine was the replacement of the original camshafts by a new set of custom made ones. The CAI operation was accomplished by means of using residual gas trapping made possible by the use of VCT (variable cam timing) on both intake and exhaust camshafts. When running on CAI, the engine was able to achieve CAI combustion with in a load range of 0.5 to 4.5 BMEP, and a speed range of 1000 to 3500 rpm. In addition, spark assisted CAI operation was employed to extend the operational range of low NOx and low pumping loss at part-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on DME Assisted Gasoline CAI/HCCI Combustion with Intake Re-Breathing Valve Strategy

In order to investigate feasibility of DME (Di-methyl ether) assisted gasoline CAI (controlled-auto ignition) combustion, direct DME injection is employed to act as the ignition source to trigger the auto-ignition combustion of premixed gasoline/air mixture with high temperature exhaust gas. Intake re-breathing valve strategy is adopted to obtain internal exhaust recirculation (EGR) that regulates heat release rate and ignitability of the premixed gasoline and air mixture. The effects of intake re-breathing valve timing and 2nd DME injection timing of different split injection ratios were investigated and discussed in terms of combustion characteristics, emission and efficiencies. The analyses showed that re-breathing intake valve timing had a large effect on the operation range of CAI combustion due to EGR and intake temperature variation.