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Technical Paper

Thermal Optimization of the ECS on an Advanced Aircraft with an Emphasis on System Efficiency and Design Methodology

Two methods for analyzing and evaluating the environmental control system on an advanced aircraft as described in this paper include the conventional first law energy conservation technique and the second law entropy generation minimization technique. Simplified analytical models of the ECS are developed for each method and compared to determine the validity of using the latter to facilitate the design process in optimizing the overall system for a minimum gross takeoff weight (GTW). Preliminary results have illustrated the importance of taking into account system optimization based on system (or component) efficiency. For instance, even though different values were obtained for the rate of entropy generation, the second law analysis of a shell-in-tube heat exchanger led to an optimum tube diameter of 0.12 in (3.05 mm) when both R-12 and R-114 were used as the refrigerant in the vapor cycle.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Roll Control for Passenger Cars during Emergency Maneuvers

A nonlinear eight degree of freedom vehicle model has been used to examine the effects of roll stiffness on handling and performance. In addition, various control strategies have been devised which vary the total roll couple distribution in order to improve cornering capability and stopping distance. Of all cases tested, a controller which varies the total roll stiffness based on roll angle feedback, and continuously updates the roll couple distribution as a function of steering wheel angle, braking input, and the total roll stiffness, yields the greatest improvements in collision avoidance.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Chassis Flexibility on Roll Stiffness of a Winston Cup Race Car

Predictable handling of a racecar may be achieved by tailoring chassis stiffness so that roll stiffness between sprung and unsprung masses are due almost entirely to the suspension. In this work, the effects of overall chassis flexibility on roll stiffness and wheel camber response, will be determined using a finite element model (FEM) of a Winston Cup racecar chassis and suspension. The FEM of the chassis/suspension is built from an assembly of beam and shell elements using geometry measured from a typical Winston cup race configuration. Care has been taken to model internal constraints between degrees-of-freedom (DOF) at suspension to chassis connections, e.g. t ball and pin joints and internal releases. To validate the model, the change in wheel loads due to an applied jacking force that rolls the chassis agrees closely with measured data.
Technical Paper

Roll Stability Control for Torsionally Compliant Vehicles

Rollover prevention is now part of complete vehicle stability control systems for many vehicles. Given that rollover is predominantly associated with vehicles with high centers of gravity, the targeted vehicles for rollover protection include medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles. Unfortunately, the chassis designs of these vehicles are often so compliant in torsion that the ends of the vehicles may have significantly different roll responses at any given time. The potential need to assess and correct for the roll behavior of the front and rear ends of the vehicle is the subject of this paper. Most rollover mitigation research to date has used rigid chassis assumptions in modeling the vehicle. This paper deals with the roll control of vehicles with torsionally flexible chassis based on a yaw-correction system.
Technical Paper

Procedure for the Characterization of Friction in Automobile Power Steering Systems

In developing a nonlinear steering system model for vehicle simulation, it was determined that proper inclusion of system friction is necessary to correctly predict steering wheel torque response in on-center driving using simulation models. A method to characterize the inherent friction behavior for a given steering gear has been developed and performed on two types of power steering gears: a recirculating ball gear and a rack-and-pinion gear. During this research it was discovered that levels of static and dynamic friction can differ widely for these two types. Therefore this characterization procedure provides a method to ascertain both static and dynamic friction levels. The results from these tests show that friction levels can depend on steering gear input shaft position, steering gear input angular velocity and steering gear loading conditions.
Journal Article

Life-Cycle Integration of Titanium Alloys into the Automotive Segment for Vehicle Light-Weighting: Part II - Component Life-Cycle Modeling and Cost Justification

To warrant the substitution of traditionally used structural automotive materials with titanium alloys, the material substitutional and redesign advantages must be attainable at a justifiable cost. Typically, during material replacement with such ‘exotic’ aerospace alloys, the initial raw material cost is high; therefore, cost justification will need to be realized from a life-cycle cost standpoint. Part I of this paper highlighted the redesign, fabrication, and validation of an automotive component. Part II details the particulars of constructing the total life-cycle cost model for both prototypes (P1, P2). Considerations in the model include adaptation to a high volume production scenario, availability of near-net size plate/bar stock, etc. Further, response surfaces of fuel costs savings and consequent life-cycle costs (state-variables) are generated against life-cycle duration and unit fuel price (design-variables) to identify profitable operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Machining of Titanium Components for Lightweight Vehicles

Due to titanium's excellent strength-to-weight ratio and high corrosion resistance, titanium and its alloys have great potential to reduce energy usage in vehicles through a reduction in vehicle mass. The mass of a road vehicle is directly related to its energy consumption through inertial requirements and tire rolling resistance losses. However, when considering the manufacture of titanium automotive components, the machinability is poor, thus increasing processing cost through a trade-off between extended cycle time (labor cost) or increased tool wear (tooling cost). This fact has classified titanium as a “difficult-to-machine” material and consequently, titanium has been traditionally used for application areas having a comparatively higher end product cost such as in aerospace applications, the automotive racing segment, etc., as opposed to the consumer automotive segment.
Journal Article

Hydrostatic Wheel Drives for Vehicle Stability Control

Hydrostatic (hydraulic hybrid) drives have demonstrated energy efficiency and emissions reduction benefits. This paper investigates the potential of an independent hydrostatic wheel drive system for implementing a traction-based vehicle lateral stability control system. The system allows an upper level vehicle stability controller to produce a desired corrective yaw moment via a differential distribution of torque to the independent wheel motors. In cornering maneuvers that require braking on any one wheel of the vehicle, the motors can be operated as pumps for re-generating energy into an on-board accumulator. This approach avoids or reduces activation of the friction brakes, thereby reducing energy waste as heat in the brake pads and offering potential savings in brake maintenance costs. For this study, a model of a 4×4 hydrostatic independent wheel drive system is constructed in a causal and modular fashion and is coupled to a 7 DOF vehicle handling dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of Ring Rolling Process

Three-dimensional simulation has become an indispensable approach to develop improved understanding of ring rolling technology, with validity as the basic requirement of the ring rolling simulation. Cold ring rolling is simple conceptually, however complex to analyze as the metal forming process is subject to coupled effects with multiple influencing factors such as sizes of rolls and ring blank, form geometry, material, process parameters, and frictional effects. Investigating the coupled thermal and plastic deformation behavior (the plastic deformation state and its development) in the deformation zone during the process is significant for predicting metal flow in order to control the geometric and tensile residual stress quality of deformed rings, and to provide for cycle time optimization of the cold ring rolling process.
Journal Article

Effect of Machining Feed on Surface Roughness in Cutting 6061 Aluminum

The general manufacturing objective during the fabrication of automotive components, particularly through machining, can be stated as the striving to achieve predefined product quality characteristics within equipment, cost and time constraints. The current state of the economy and the consequent market pressure has forced vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously reduce operating expenses along with further improving product quality. This paper examines the achievability of surface roughness specifications within efforts to reduce automotive component manufacture cycle time, particularly by changing cutting feeds. First, the background and attractiveness of aluminum as a lightweight automotive material is discussed. Following this, the methodologies employed for the prediction of surface roughness in machining are presented. The factors affecting surface roughness as well as practical techniques for its improvement through optimizing machining parameters are discussed next.
Technical Paper

Driver Models for Virtual Testing of Automotive Run-Off-Road and Recovery Control Systems and Education Strategies

Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).
Technical Paper

Development and Qualitative Testing of Traction Concepts as an Undergraduate Experience

Recent research at Clemson University has focused on the development of an advanced non-pneumatic, non-elastomeric lunar wheel for NASA with superior traction. This paper reports on several concepts for tread materials and geometries that have been explored for tire-on-sand use. Specifically, fourteen concepts, involving the use of metal meshes, textile carpet materials, soft grousers, foams, and screens, were physically tested in an on-vehicle environment. Prototypes for each concept and formal test procedures to quantify traction were developed. This paper presents the results of the tests for several different concepts and the comparison between the concepts that were developed. Students developed their own testing environment through which these test procedures are implemented, an inclined hill 45 ft. in length and 8 ft. wide will approximately 6 inches deep filled with sand.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Portable Driving Performance and Analysis System for Education Purposes

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor collisions account for nearly 2.4 million injuries and 37 thousand fatalities each year in the United States. A great deal of research has been done in the area of vehicular safety, but very little has been completed to ensure licensed drivers are properly trained. Given the inherent risks in driving itself, the test for licensure should be uniform and consistent. To address this issue, an inexpensive, portable data acquisition and analysis system has been developed for the evaluation of driver performance. A study was performed to evaluate the system, and each participant was given a normalized driver rating. The average driver rating was μ=55.6, with a standard deviation of σ=12.3. All but 3 drivers fell into the so-called “Target Zone”, defined by a Driver Rating of μ± 1σ.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Dual-Purpose Battery Electric Powertrain Concept for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle

The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the sixth generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of a dual-purpose powertrain system enabling vehicle propulsion as well as stationary activities of the Deep Orange 6 vehicle concept. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish vehicle target and subsystem requirement, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
Journal Article

Conceptual Development of a Multi-Material Composite Structure for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle

The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a multimaterial lightweight Body-in-White (BiW) structure to support an all-electric powertrain combined with an interior package that maximizes volume to enable a variety of interior configurations and activities for Generation Z users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Development and Implementation of a Reconfigurable Interior Concept for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle

The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to explain the interior concept that offers a flexible interior utility/activity space for Generation Z (Gen Z) users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish technical specifications, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.

Composites in Automotive Applications set

This set consists of three books, Design of Automotive Composites, CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites, and Biocomposites in Automotive Applications all developed by Dr. Charles Lu and Dr. Srikanth Pilla. Design of Automotive Composites reports successful designs of automotive composites occurred recently in this arena, CAE Design and Failure Analysis of Automotive Composites focuses on the latest use of CAE (Computer-Aided Engineering) methods in design and failure analysis of composite materials and structures, and Biocomposites in Automotive Applications, focuses on processing and characterization of biocomposites, their application in the automotive industry and new perspectives on automotive sustainability. Together, they are a focused collection providing the reader with must-read technical papers, hand-picked by the editors, supporting the growing importance of the use of composites in the ground vehicle industry. Dr. Charles Lu is H.E.
Technical Paper

Clemson University Motorsports Engineering Program

The newly initiated Clemson Motorsports Engineering Program, housed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, provides unique educational opportunities to our students combining classroom engineering education, research, and race team experience. Additionally, the research and service projects conducted provide valuable information to race teams and companies in the automotive industry as well as involving students in both applied technology development and fundamental engineering activities. This paper describes the current activities and structure of the program together with our view for future development.
Technical Paper

Automotive Simulator Based Novice Driver Training with Assessment

Motor vehicle crashes involving novice drivers are significantly higher than matured driver incidents as reported by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System (NHTSA-FARS). Researchers around the world and the United States are focused on how to decrease crashes for this driver demographic. Novice drivers usually complete driver education classes as a pre-requisite for full licensure to improve overall knowledge and safety. However, compiled statistics still indicate a need for more in-depth training after full licensure. An opportunity exists to supplement in-vehicle driving with focused learning modules using automotive simulators. In this paper, a training program for “Following Etiquette” and “Situational Awareness” was developed to introduce these key driving techniques and to complete a feasibility study using a driving simulator as the training tool.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Pulse Steer Method for Determining Automobile Handling Qualities

The use of pulse steering tests for assessment of handling qualities was investigated using a simulation of a comprehensive, nonlinear four wheel model of an automobile. Evaluations were conducted using frequency response functions of yaw rate and lateral acceleration obtained by FFT processing of the simulated response. In addition, as suggested by the work of Mimuro et al [1], four parameters (steady state yaw rate gain, yaw rate natural frequency and damping ratio, and lateral acceleration phase lag at 1 Hz) that characterize these response functions were also obtained by curve fitting techniques. The effects on accuracy of the response functions and the four parameters of variations in pulse shape, duration, and magnitude were investigated. Results from the simulated pulse steer test were compared with those from simulated swept sine steering tests.