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Technical Paper

Turbulence Intensity Calculation from Cylinder Pressure Data in a High Degree of Freedom Spark-Ignition Engine

The number of control actuators available on spark-ignition engines is rapidly increasing to meet demand for improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions. The added complexity greatly complicates control strategy development because there can be a wide range of potential actuator settings at each engine operating condition, and map-based actuator calibration becomes challenging as the number of control degrees of freedom expand significantly. Many engine actuators, such as variable valve actuation and flow control valves, directly influence in-cylinder combustion through changes in gas exchange, mixture preparation, and charge motion. The addition of these types of actuators makes it difficult to predict the influences of individual actuator positioning on in-cylinder combustion without substantial experimental complexity.
Technical Paper

Thermal Optimization of the ECS on an Advanced Aircraft with an Emphasis on System Efficiency and Design Methodology

Two methods for analyzing and evaluating the environmental control system on an advanced aircraft as described in this paper include the conventional first law energy conservation technique and the second law entropy generation minimization technique. Simplified analytical models of the ECS are developed for each method and compared to determine the validity of using the latter to facilitate the design process in optimizing the overall system for a minimum gross takeoff weight (GTW). Preliminary results have illustrated the importance of taking into account system optimization based on system (or component) efficiency. For instance, even though different values were obtained for the rate of entropy generation, the second law analysis of a shell-in-tube heat exchanger led to an optimum tube diameter of 0.12 in (3.05 mm) when both R-12 and R-114 were used as the refrigerant in the vapor cycle.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Roll Control for Passenger Cars during Emergency Maneuvers

A nonlinear eight degree of freedom vehicle model has been used to examine the effects of roll stiffness on handling and performance. In addition, various control strategies have been devised which vary the total roll couple distribution in order to improve cornering capability and stopping distance. Of all cases tested, a controller which varies the total roll stiffness based on roll angle feedback, and continuously updates the roll couple distribution as a function of steering wheel angle, braking input, and the total roll stiffness, yields the greatest improvements in collision avoidance.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Chassis Flexibility on Roll Stiffness of a Winston Cup Race Car

Predictable handling of a racecar may be achieved by tailoring chassis stiffness so that roll stiffness between sprung and unsprung masses are due almost entirely to the suspension. In this work, the effects of overall chassis flexibility on roll stiffness and wheel camber response, will be determined using a finite element model (FEM) of a Winston Cup racecar chassis and suspension. The FEM of the chassis/suspension is built from an assembly of beam and shell elements using geometry measured from a typical Winston cup race configuration. Care has been taken to model internal constraints between degrees-of-freedom (DOF) at suspension to chassis connections, e.g. t ball and pin joints and internal releases. To validate the model, the change in wheel loads due to an applied jacking force that rolls the chassis agrees closely with measured data.
Technical Paper

Source Identification Using an Inverse Visible Element Rayleigh Integral Approach

This paper documents an inverse visible element Rayleigh integral (VERI) approach. The VERI is a fast though approximate method for predicting sound radiation that can be used in the place of the boundary element method. This paper extends the method by applying it to the inverse problem where the VERI is used to generate the acoustic transfer matrix relating the velocity on the surface to measurement points. Given measured pressures, the inverse VERI can be used to reconstruct the vibration of a radiating surface. Results from an engine cover and diesel engine indicate that the method can be used to reliably quantify the sound power and also approximate directivity.
Technical Paper

Roll Stability Control for Torsionally Compliant Vehicles

Rollover prevention is now part of complete vehicle stability control systems for many vehicles. Given that rollover is predominantly associated with vehicles with high centers of gravity, the targeted vehicles for rollover protection include medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles. Unfortunately, the chassis designs of these vehicles are often so compliant in torsion that the ends of the vehicles may have significantly different roll responses at any given time. The potential need to assess and correct for the roll behavior of the front and rear ends of the vehicle is the subject of this paper. Most rollover mitigation research to date has used rigid chassis assumptions in modeling the vehicle. This paper deals with the roll control of vehicles with torsionally flexible chassis based on a yaw-correction system.
Technical Paper

Research Alliances, A Strategy for Progress

In today's business climate rapid access to, and implementation of, new technology is essential to enhance competitive advantage. In the past, universities have been used for research contracts, but to fully utilize the intellectual resources of education institutions, it is essential to approach these relationships from a new basis: alliance. Alliances permit both parties to become active participants and achieve mutually beneficial goals. This paper will examine the drivers and challenges for industrial -- university alliances from both the industrial and academic perspectives.
Technical Paper

Procedure for the Characterization of Friction in Automobile Power Steering Systems

In developing a nonlinear steering system model for vehicle simulation, it was determined that proper inclusion of system friction is necessary to correctly predict steering wheel torque response in on-center driving using simulation models. A method to characterize the inherent friction behavior for a given steering gear has been developed and performed on two types of power steering gears: a recirculating ball gear and a rack-and-pinion gear. During this research it was discovered that levels of static and dynamic friction can differ widely for these two types. Therefore this characterization procedure provides a method to ascertain both static and dynamic friction levels. The results from these tests show that friction levels can depend on steering gear input shaft position, steering gear input angular velocity and steering gear loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Late Cycle Oxygen Enrichment on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

A multidimensional simulation of Auxiliary Gas Injection (AGI) for late cycle oxygen enrichment was exercised to assess the merits of AGI for reducing the emissions of soot from heavy duty diesel engines while not adversely affecting the NOx emissions of the engine. Here, AGI is the controlled enhancement of mixing within the diesel engine combustion chamber by high speed jets of air or another gas. The engine simulated was a Caterpillar 3401 engine. For a particular operating condition of this engine, the simulated soot emissions of the engine were reduced by 80% while not significantly affecting the engine-out NOx emissions compared to the engine operating without AGI. The effects of AGI duration, timing, and orientation are studied to confirm the window of opportunity for realizing lower engine-out soot while not increasing engine out NOx through controlled enhancement of in-cylinder mixing.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control-Oriented Combustion Phasing Feedback for Fast CA50 Estimation

The highly transient operational nature of passenger car engines makes cylinder pressure based feedback control of combustion phasing difficult. The problem is further complicated by cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. A method for fast and accurate differentiation of normal combustion variations and true changes in combustion phasing is addressed in this research. The proposed method combines the results of a feed forward combustion phasing prediction model and “noisy” measurements from cylinder pressure using an iterative estimation technique. A modified version of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to calculate optimal estimation gain according to the stochastic properties of the combustion phasing measurement at the corresponding engine operating condition. Methods to improve steady state CA50 estimation performance and adaptation to errors are further discussed in this research.
Technical Paper

Methane Jet Penetration in a Direct-Injection Natural Gas Engine

A direct-injection natural gas (DING) engine was modified for optical access to allow the use of laser diagnostic techniques to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the cylinder. The injection and mixing processes were examined using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone-seeded natural gas to obtain qualitative maps of the fuel/air ratio. Initial acetone PLIF images were acquired in a quiescent combustion chamber with the piston locked in a position corresponding to 90° BTDC. A series of single shot images acquired in 0.1 ms intervals was used to measure the progression of one of the fuel jets across the cylinder. Cylinder pressures as high as 2 MPa were used to match the in-cylinder density during injection in a firing engine. Subsequent images were acquired in a motoring engine at 600 rpm with injections starting at 30, 20, and 15° BTDC in 0.5 crank angle degree increments.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Machining of Titanium Components for Lightweight Vehicles

Due to titanium's excellent strength-to-weight ratio and high corrosion resistance, titanium and its alloys have great potential to reduce energy usage in vehicles through a reduction in vehicle mass. The mass of a road vehicle is directly related to its energy consumption through inertial requirements and tire rolling resistance losses. However, when considering the manufacture of titanium automotive components, the machinability is poor, thus increasing processing cost through a trade-off between extended cycle time (labor cost) or increased tool wear (tooling cost). This fact has classified titanium as a “difficult-to-machine” material and consequently, titanium has been traditionally used for application areas having a comparatively higher end product cost such as in aerospace applications, the automotive racing segment, etc., as opposed to the consumer automotive segment.
Technical Paper

Integrated Diagnostics for the Vehicle System

How will a mechanic troubleshoot the heavy duty vehicle of the future? Will he or she have to be both retriever and integrator of data collected from multiple black boxes on the vehicle? How many tools will it take? Is there a definition of a vehicle system “diagnostic environment” that needs to be developed in order to create a solution to this problem? This paper will attempt to create the system focus for vehicle diagnostics that is required if this industry is to successfully produce the integrated electronic vehicle of the future. Both the on-board and off-board requirements of the diagnostic environment will be examined.
Journal Article

Input Adaptation for Control Oriented Physics-Based SI Engine Combustion Models Based on Cylinder Pressure Feedback

As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets, they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The additional complexity created by a larger number of control actuators motivates the use of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. Combustion phasing, as one of the most important engine combustion metrics, has a significant influence on engine efficiency, emissions, vibration and durability. To realize physics-based engine combustion phasing control, an accurate prediction model is required. This research introduces physics-based control-oriented laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity models that can be used in a quasi-dimensional turbulent entrainment combustion model. The influence of laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity on predicted mass fraction burned (MFB) profile during combustion is analyzed.
Journal Article

Hydrostatic Wheel Drives for Vehicle Stability Control

Hydrostatic (hydraulic hybrid) drives have demonstrated energy efficiency and emissions reduction benefits. This paper investigates the potential of an independent hydrostatic wheel drive system for implementing a traction-based vehicle lateral stability control system. The system allows an upper level vehicle stability controller to produce a desired corrective yaw moment via a differential distribution of torque to the independent wheel motors. In cornering maneuvers that require braking on any one wheel of the vehicle, the motors can be operated as pumps for re-generating energy into an on-board accumulator. This approach avoids or reduces activation of the friction brakes, thereby reducing energy waste as heat in the brake pads and offering potential savings in brake maintenance costs. For this study, a model of a 4×4 hydrostatic independent wheel drive system is constructed in a causal and modular fashion and is coupled to a 7 DOF vehicle handling dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Simulation of Ring Rolling Process

Three-dimensional simulation has become an indispensable approach to develop improved understanding of ring rolling technology, with validity as the basic requirement of the ring rolling simulation. Cold ring rolling is simple conceptually, however complex to analyze as the metal forming process is subject to coupled effects with multiple influencing factors such as sizes of rolls and ring blank, form geometry, material, process parameters, and frictional effects. Investigating the coupled thermal and plastic deformation behavior (the plastic deformation state and its development) in the deformation zone during the process is significant for predicting metal flow in order to control the geometric and tensile residual stress quality of deformed rings, and to provide for cycle time optimization of the cold ring rolling process.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of Interaction between Non-Pneumatic Tire and Sand

In this paper, in support of developing an advanced non-pneumatic lunar tire, a dynamic interaction model between non-pneumatic tire and sand is presented using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This non-pneumatic tire is composed of three major components: a critical shear beam, two inextensible circumferential membranes, and deformable spokes. The non-pneumatic tire made of segmented cylinders is described in detail. The tire is treated as an elastic deformable body with the inertia effect is included. Lebanon sand found in New Hampshire is modeled as because of the availability of a complete set of material properties in the literature. The Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity constitutive law with hardening is employed to model the sand. Numerical results show contact pressure distribution, distributions of various stresses and strains, deformation of non-pneumatic tire, and deformation of sand.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Impact Simulation of Interaction between Non-Pneumatic Tire and Sand with Obstacle

In this paper, the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to model and simulate the dynamic interaction between non-pneumatic tire and sand with obstacle to investigate the influence of obstacle on performance of the non-pneumatic tire. The non-pneumatic tire consists of three major components: two inextensible circumferential membranes, a critical shear beam, and a group of deformable spokes. The non-pneumatic tire fabricated of segmented cylinders is illustrated and the FEM model for the tire is given in detail. The tire is treated as an elastic deformable body with the inertia effect included. Lebanon sand found in New Hampshire is used in this simulation because of the availability of a complete set of material properties in the literature. Modified Drucker-Prager/Cap plasticity constitutive law with hardening is utilized to model the sand. The obstacle is represented as an elastic body.
Technical Paper

Driver Models for Virtual Testing of Automotive Run-Off-Road and Recovery Control Systems and Education Strategies

Driver modeling is essential to both vehicle design and control unit development. It can improve the understanding of human driving behavior and decrease the cost and risk of vehicle system verification and validation. In this paper, three driver models were implemented to simulate the behavior of drivers subject to a run-off-road recovery event. Target path planning, pursuit behavior, compensate behavior, physical limitations, and neuromuscular modeling were taken into consideration in the feedforward/feedback driver model. A transfer function driver model and a cost function based driver model from a popular vehicle simulation software were also simulated and a comparison of these three models was made. The feedforward/feedback driver model exhibited the best balance of performance with smallest overshoot (0.226m), medium settling time (1.20s) and recovery time (4.30s).