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Technical Paper

Using Pilot Diesel Injection in a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2866
Previous research has shown that the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept holds promise for reducing pollutants (i.e. NOx, soot) while maintaining high thermal efficiency. However, it can be difficult to control the operation of the HCCI engines even under steady state running conditions. Power density may also be limited if high inlet air temperatures are used for achieving ignition. A methodology using a small pilot quantity of diesel fuel injected during the compression stroke to improve the power density and operation control is considered in this paper. Multidimensional computations were carried out for an HCCI engine based on a CAT3401 engine. The computations show that the required initial temperature for ignition is reduced by about 70 K for the cases of the diesel pilot charge and a 25∼35% percent increase in power density was found for those cases without adversely impacting the NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Thermal and Chemical Aging of Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-1266
The effects of thermal and chemical aging on the performance of cordierite-based and high-porosity mullite-based diesel particulate filters (DPFs), were quantified, particularly their filtration efficiency, pressure drop, and regeneration capability. Both catalyzed and uncatalyzed core-size samples were tested in the lab using a diesel fuel burner and a chemical reactor. The diesel fuel burner generated carbonaceous particulate matter with a pre-specified particle-size distribution, which was loaded in the DPF cores. As the particulate loading evolved, measurements were made for the filtration efficiency and pressure drop across the filter using, respectively, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a pressure transducer. In a subsequent process and on a different bench system, the regeneration capability was tested by measuring the concentration of CO plus CO2 evolved during the controlled oxidation of the carbonaceous species previously deposited on the DPF samples.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Fuel Properties on Diesel Engine Emissions and a Feasible Solution for Common Calibration

2014-09-30
2014-01-2367
Fuel properties impact the engine-out emission directly. For some geographic regions where diesel engines can meet emission regulations without aftertreatment, the change of fuel properties will lead to final tailpipe emission variation. Aftertreatment systems such as Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are required for diesel engines to meet stringent regulations. These regulations include off-road Tier 4 Final emission regulations in the USA or the corresponding Stage IV emission regulations in Europe. As an engine with an aftertreatment system, the change of fuel properties will also affect the system conversion efficiency and regeneration cycle. Previous research works focus on prediction of engine-out emission, and many are based on chemical reactions. Due to the complex mixing, pyrolysis and reaction process in heterogeneous combustion, it is not cost-effective to find a general model to predict emission shifting due to fuel variation.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Engine Testing of γ-Alumina Catalysts Under Plasma Assist for NOx Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust

2003-03-03
2003-01-1186
A slipstream of exhaust from a Caterpillar 3126B engine was diverted into a plasma-catalytic NOx control system in the space velocity range of 7,000 to 100,000 hr-1. The stream was first fed through a non-thermal plasma that was formed in a coaxial cylinder dielectric barrier discharge reactor. Plasma treated gas was then passed over a catalyst bed held at constant temperature in the range of 573 to 773 K. Catalysts examined consisted of γ-alumina, indium-doped γ-alumina, and silver-doped γ-alumina. Road and rated load conditions resulted in engine out NOx levels of 250 - 600 ppm. The effects of hydrocarbon level, catalyst temperature, and space velocity are discussed where propene and in one case ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (late cycle injection) were the reducing agents used for NOx reduction. Results showed NOx reduction in the range of 25 - 97% depending on engine operating conditions and management of the catalyst and slipstream conditions.
Technical Paper

Preparation and Characterization of Nanophase Gold Catalysts for Emissions Control

2008-10-07
2008-01-2639
Various gold catalysts were prepared using commercial and in-house fabricated advanced catalyst supports that included mesoporous silica, mesoporous alumina, sol-gel alumina, and transition metal oxides. Gold nanoparticles were loaded on the supports by co-precipitation, deposition-precipitation, ion exchange and surface functionalization techniques. The average gold particle size was ∼20nm or less. The oxidation activity of the prepared catalysts was studied using carbon monoxide and light hydrocarbons (ethylene, propylene and propane) in presence of water and CO2 and the results are presented.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Electrical Assist and Variable Geometry Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Downsizing

2017-03-28
2017-01-1035
Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response. This paper assesses the potential benefits of the electrically-assisted turbocharger with VGT to enable heavy-duty diesel engine downsizing.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Facilitated SCR of NOx in Heavy-Duty Diesel Exhaust

2001-09-24
2001-01-3570
This paper describes two independent studies on γ-alumina as a plasma-activated catalyst. γ-alumina (2.5 - 4.3 wt%) was coated onto the surface of mesoporous silica to determine the importance of aluminum surface coordination on NOx conversion in conjunction with nonthermal plasma. Results indicate that the presence of 5- and 6- fold aluminum coordination sites in γ-alumina could be a significant factor in the NOx reduction process. A second study examined the effect of changing the reducing agent on NOx conversion. Several hydrocarbons were examined including propene, propane, isooctane, methanol, and acetaldehyde. It is demonstrated that methanol was the most effective reducing agent of those tested for a plasma-facilitated reaction over γ-alumina.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Enhanced Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Simulated Lean Exhaust

2000-10-16
2000-01-2961
NOx reduction efficiency in simulated lean exhaust conditions has been examined for three proprietary catalyst materials using a non-thermal plasma discharge as a pretreatment stage to the catalyst. Using propene as the reducing agent for selective catalytic reduction, 74% reduction of NOx has been observed in the presence of 20 ppm SO2. For sulfur-free simulated exhaust, 84% NOx reduction has been obtained. Results show that the impact of sulfur on the samples examined can vary widely from virtually no effect (< 5%) to more than 20% loss in activity depending on the catalyst. Any loss due to sulfur poisoning appears to be irreversible according to limited measurements on poisoned catalysts exposed to sulfur-free exhaust streams. Catalysts were tested over a temperature range of 473-773K, with the highest activity observed at 773K. Examination of this large temperature window has shown that the optimum C1:NOx ratio changes with temperature.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification of Gasoline Intake Port Design

2015-04-14
2015-01-0379
The hybrid vehicle engines modified for high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a good choice for high efficiency and low NOx emissions. However, high EGR will dilute the engine charge and may cause serious performance problems, such as incomplete combustion, torque fluctuation, and engine misfire. An efficient way to overcome these drawbacks is to intensify tumble leading to increased turbulent intensity at the time of ignition. The enhancement of turbulent intensity will increase flame velocity and improve combustion quality, therefore increasing engine tolerance to higher EGR. To achieve the goal of increasing tolerance to EGR, this work reports a CFD investigation of high tumble intake port design using STAR-CD. The validations had been performed through the comparison with PIV experimental tests.
Journal Article

New Developments in Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2008-10-07
2008-01-2638
A number of oxidation catalysts have been prepared using different types of advanced support materials such as ceria-zirconia, silica-titania, spinels and perovskites. Active metals such as Pd and Au-Pd were loaded by conventional impregnation techniques and/or deposition-precipitation methods. A liquid hydrocarbon delivery system was designed and implemented for the catalyst test benches in order to simulate the diesel engine exhaust environment. The activity of fresh (no degreening) catalysts was evaluated with traditional CO and light hydrocarbons (C2H4, C3H6) as well as with heavy hydrocarbons such as C10 H22.
Technical Paper

Investigating Limitations of a Two-Zone NOx Model Applied to DI Diesel Combustion Using 3-D Modeling

2016-04-05
2016-01-0576
A two-zone NOx model intended for 1-D engine simulations was developed and used to model NOx emissions from a 2.5 L single-cylinder engine. The intent of the present work is to understand key aspects of a simple NOx model that are needed for predictive accuracy, including NOx formation and destruction phenomena in a DI Diesel combustion system. The presented two-zone model is fundamentally based on the heat release rate and thermodynamic incylinder data, and uses the Extended Zeldovich mechanism to model NO. Results show that the model responded very well to changes in speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level. It matched measured tail pipe NOx levels within 20%, using a single tuning setup. When the model was applied to varied injection rate shapes, it showed correct sensitivity to speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level, but the absolute level was well outside the target accuracy. The same limitation was seen when applying the Plee NOx model.
Journal Article

Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

2011-04-12
2011-01-1136
It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil-derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Property Changes on Heavy-Duty HCCI Combustion

2007-04-16
2007-01-0191
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) offers the potential for significant improvements in efficiency with a substantial reduction in emissions. However, achieving heavy-duty (HD) HCCI engine operation at practical loads and speeds presents numerous technical challenges. Successful expansion of the HCCI operating range to include the full range of load and speed must be accomplished while maintaining proper combustion phasing, control of maximum cylinder pressure and pressure rise rates, and low emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM). Significant progress in this endeavour has been made through a collaborative research effort between Caterpillar and ExxonMobil. This paper evaluates fuel effects on HCCI engine operating range and emissions. Test fuels were developed in the gasoline and diesel boiling range covering a broad range of ignition quality, fuel chemistry, and volatility.
Journal Article

Early Investigation of Ducted Fuel Injection for Reducing Soot in Mixing-Controlled Diesel Flames

2018-04-03
2018-01-0238
Ducted fuel injection (DFI) is a developing technology for reducing in-cylinder soot formed during mixing-controlled combustion in diesel compression ignition engines. Fuel injection through a small duct has the effect of extending the lift-off length (LOL) and reducing the equivalence ratio at ignition. In this work, the feasibility of DFI to reduce soot and to enable leaner lifted-flame combustion (LLFC) is investigated for a single diesel jet injected from a 138 μm orifice into engine-like (60-120 bar, 800-950 K) quiescent conditions. High-speed imaging and natural luminosity (NL) measurements of combusting sprays were used to quantify duct effects on jet penetration, ignition delay, LOL, and soot emission in a constant pressure high-temperature-pressure vessel (HTPV). At the highest ambient pressure and temperatures tested, soot luminosity was reduced by as much as 50%.
Journal Article

Early Direct-Injection, Low-Temperature Combustion of Diesel Fuel in an Optical Engine Utilizing a 15-Hole, Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle

2008-10-06
2008-01-2400
Low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel was studied in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, optical engine employing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle (10 holes × 70° and 5 holes × 35°) with 103-μm-diameter orifices. This nozzle configuration provided the spray targeting necessary to contain the direct-injected diesel fuel within the piston bowl for injection timings as early as 70° before top dead center. Spray-visualization movies, acquired using a high-speed camera, show that impingement of liquid fuel on the piston surface can result when the in-cylinder temperature and density at the time of injection are sufficiently low. Seven single- and two-parameter sweeps around a 4.82-bar gross indicated mean effective pressure load point were performed to map the sensitivity of the combustion and emissions to variations in injection timing, injection pressure, equivalence ratio, simulated exhaust-gas recirculation, intake temperature, intake boost pressure, and load.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Kinetic Models for Surrogate Diesel Fuels

2007-04-16
2007-01-0201
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations that include realistic combustion/emissions chemistry hold the promise of significantly shortening the development time for advanced high-efficiency, low-emission engines. However, significant challenges must be overcome to realize this potential. This paper discusses these challenges in the context of diesel combustion and outlines a technical program based on the use of surrogate fuels that sufficiently emulate the chemical complexity inherent in conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Dynamics Analysis for Electrified Turbocharged Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0617
Engine electrification is a critical technology in the promotion of engine fuel efficiency, among which the electrified turbocharger is regarded as the promising solution in engine downsizing. By installing electrical devices on the turbocharger, the excess energy can be captured, stored, and re-used. The electrified turbocharger consists of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and an electric motor (EM) within the turbocharger bearing housing, where the EM is capable in bi-directional power transfer. The VGT, EM, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve all impact the dynamics of air path. In this paper, the dynamics in an electrified turbocharged diesel engine (ETDE), especially the couplings between different loops in the air path is analyzed. Furthermore, an explicit principle in selecting control variables is proposed. Based on the analysis, a model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) decoupling controller is designed to regulate the air path dynamics.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Low-Soot and Soot-Free Combustion Strategies in a Heavy-Duty, Single-Cylinder, Direct-Injection, Optical Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1812
High-efficiency, clean-combustion strategies for heavy-duty diesel engines are critical for meeting stringent emissions regulations and reducing the costs of aftertreatment systems that are currently required to meet these regulations. Results from previous constant-volume combustion-vessel experiments using a single jet of fuel under quiescent conditions have shown that mixing-controlled soot-free combustion (i.e., combustion where soot is not produced) is possible with #2 diesel fuel. These experiments employed small injector-orifice diameters (≺ 150 μm) and high fuel-injection pressures (≻ 200 MPa) at top-dead-center (TDC) temperatures and densities that could be achievable in modern heavy-duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

API CI-4: The First Oil Category for Diesel Engines Using Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2002-05-06
2002-01-1673
This oil category was driven by two new cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) engine tests operating with 15% EGR, with used oil soot levels at the end of the test ranging from 6 to 9%. These tests are the Mack T-10 and Cummins M11 EGR, which address ring, cylinder liner, bearing, and valve train wear; filter plugging, and sludge. In addition to these two new EGR tests, there is a Caterpillar single-cylinder test without EGR which measures piston deposits and oil consumption control using an articulated piston. This test is called the Caterpillar 1R and is included in the existing Global DHD-1 specification. In total, the API CI-4 category includes eight fired-engine tests and seven bench tests covering all the engine oil parameters. The new bench tests include a seal compatibility test for fresh oils and a low temperature pumpability test for used oils containing 5% soot. This paper provides a review of the all the tests, matrix results, and limits for this new oil category.
Technical Paper

A New Validation of Spray Penetration Models for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Injectors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0826
The performance of five positive k-factor injector tips has been assessed in this work by analyzing a comprehensive set of injected mass, momentum, and spray measurements. Using high speed shadowgraphs of the injected diesel plumes, the sensitivities of measured vapor penetration and dispersion to injection pressure (100-250MPa) and ambient density (20-52 kg/m3) have been compared with the Naber-Siebers empirical spray model to gain understanding of second order effects of orifice diameter. Varying in size from 137 to 353μm, the orifice diameters and corresponding injector tips are appropriate for a relatively wide range of engine cylinder sizes (from 0.5 to 5L). In this regime, decreasing the orifice exit diameter was found to reduce spray penetration sensitivity to differential injection pressure. The cone angle and k-factored orifice exit diameter were found to be uncorrelated.
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