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Technical Paper

Using Pilot Diesel Injection in a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine

Previous research has shown that the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept holds promise for reducing pollutants (i.e. NOx, soot) while maintaining high thermal efficiency. However, it can be difficult to control the operation of the HCCI engines even under steady state running conditions. Power density may also be limited if high inlet air temperatures are used for achieving ignition. A methodology using a small pilot quantity of diesel fuel injected during the compression stroke to improve the power density and operation control is considered in this paper. Multidimensional computations were carried out for an HCCI engine based on a CAT3401 engine. The computations show that the required initial temperature for ignition is reduced by about 70 K for the cases of the diesel pilot charge and a 25∼35% percent increase in power density was found for those cases without adversely impacting the NOx emissions.
Journal Article

Understanding Hydrocarbon Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Combining Experimental and Computational Methods

Fundamental understanding of the sources of fuel-derived Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy duty diesel engines is a key piece of knowledge that impacts engine combustion system development. Current emissions regulations for hydrocarbons can be difficult to meet in-cylinder and thus after treatment technologies such as oxidation catalysts are typically used, which can be costly. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are combined with engine experiments in an effort to build an understanding of hydrocarbon sources. In the experiments, the combustion system design was varied through injector style, injector rate shape, combustion chamber geometry, and calibration, to study the impact on UHC emissions from mixing-controlled diesel combustion.
Journal Article

Transient, Three Dimensional CFD Model of the Complete Engine Lubrication System

This paper reports on a comprehensive, crank-angle transient, three dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the complete lubrication system of a multi-cylinder engine using the CFD software Simerics-Sys / PumpLinx. This work represents an advance in system-level modeling of the engine lubrication system over the current state of the art of one-dimensional models. The model was applied to a 16 cylinder, reciprocating internal combustion engine lubrication system. The computational domain includes the positive displacement gear pump, the pressure regulation valve, bearings, piston pins, piston cooling jets, the oil cooler, the oil filter etc… The motion of the regulation valve was predicted by strongly coupling a rigorous force balance on the valve to the flow.
Journal Article

The Visualization of Soot Late in the Diesel Combustion Process by Laser Induced Incandescence with a Vertical Laser Sheet

Although soot-formation processes in diesel engines have been well characterized during the mixing-controlled burn, little is known about the distribution of soot throughout the combustion chamber after the end of appreciable heat release during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Hence, the laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic was developed to visualize the distribution of soot within an optically accessible single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine during this period. The developed LII diagnostic is semi-quantitative; i.e., if certain conditions (listed in the Appendix) are true, it accurately captures spatial and temporal trends in the in-cylinder soot field. The diagnostic features a vertically oriented and vertically propagating laser sheet that can be translated across the combustion chamber, where “vertical” refers to a direction parallel to the axis of the cylinder bore.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of Transient Response Prediction of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine to Turbine Map Extrapolation

Mandated pollutant emission levels are shifting light-duty vehicles towards hybrid and electric powertrains. Heavy-duty applications, on the other hand, will continue to rely on internal combustion engines for the foreseeable future. Hence there remain clear environmental and economic reasons to further decrease IC engine emissions. Turbocharged diesels are the mainstay prime mover for heavy-duty vehicles and industrial machines, and transient performance is integral to maximizing productivity, while minimizing work cycle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. 1D engine simulation tools are commonplace for “virtual” performance development, saving time and cost, and enabling product and emissions legislation cycles to be met. A known limitation however, is the predictive capability of the turbocharger turbine sub-model in these tools.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Fuel Properties on Diesel Engine Emissions and a Feasible Solution for Common Calibration

Fuel properties impact the engine-out emission directly. For some geographic regions where diesel engines can meet emission regulations without aftertreatment, the change of fuel properties will lead to final tailpipe emission variation. Aftertreatment systems such as Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are required for diesel engines to meet stringent regulations. These regulations include off-road Tier 4 Final emission regulations in the USA or the corresponding Stage IV emission regulations in Europe. As an engine with an aftertreatment system, the change of fuel properties will also affect the system conversion efficiency and regeneration cycle. Previous research works focus on prediction of engine-out emission, and many are based on chemical reactions. Due to the complex mixing, pyrolysis and reaction process in heterogeneous combustion, it is not cost-effective to find a general model to predict emission shifting due to fuel variation.
Technical Paper

System Efficiency Issues for Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engines in Heavy-Duty Stationary Applications

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has been proposed for natural gas engines in heavy duty stationary power generation applications. A number of researchers have demonstrated, through simulation and experiment, the feasibility of obtaining high gross indicated thermal efficiencies and very low NOx emissions at reasonable load levels. With a goal of eventual commercialization of these engines, this paper sets forth some of the primary challenges in obtaining high brake thermal efficiency from production feasible engines. Experimental results, in conjunction with simulation and analysis, are used to compare HCCI operation with traditional lean burn spark ignition performance. Current HCCI technology is characterized by low power density, very dilute mixtures, and low combustion efficiency. The quantitative adverse effect of each of these traits is demonstrated with respect to the brake thermal efficiency that can be expected in real world applications.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Electrical Assist and Variable Geometry Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Downsizing

Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response. This paper assesses the potential benefits of the electrically-assisted turbocharger with VGT to enable heavy-duty diesel engine downsizing.
Journal Article

Phenomenological Autoignition Model for Diesel Sprays Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics and a Characteristic Scalar Dissipation Rate

This study focuses on the development of an autoignition model for diesel sprays that is applicable to phenomenological multi-zone combustion models. These models typically use a single-step Arrhenius expression to represent the low-temperature chemistry leading up to autoignition. There has been a substantial amount of work done in the area of n-heptane autoignition in homogeneous mixtures. Reduced kinetic mechanisms with ten reactions or less have been proposed in the literature to represent the complex low-temperature oxidation of n-heptane. These kinetic models are attractive for multi-zone simulations because of the low number of reactions involved. However, these kinetic mechanisms and the multi-zone treatment of the fuel spray do not account for the effect of turbulence/chemistry interactions on the chemical reaction rate.
Technical Paper

Moving Toward Establishing More Robust and Systematic Model Development for IC Engines Using Process Informatics

Analyzing the combustion characteristics, engine performance, and emissions pathways of the internal combustion (IC) engine requires management of complex and an increasing quantity of data. With this in mind, effective management to deliver increased knowledge from these data over shorter timescales is a priority for development engineers. This paper describes how this can be achieved by combining conventional engine research methods with the latest developments in process informatics and statistical analysis. Process informatics enables engineers to combine data, instrumental and application models to carry out automated model development including optimization and validation against large data repositories of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Investigating Limitations of a Two-Zone NOx Model Applied to DI Diesel Combustion Using 3-D Modeling

A two-zone NOx model intended for 1-D engine simulations was developed and used to model NOx emissions from a 2.5 L single-cylinder engine. The intent of the present work is to understand key aspects of a simple NOx model that are needed for predictive accuracy, including NOx formation and destruction phenomena in a DI Diesel combustion system. The presented two-zone model is fundamentally based on the heat release rate and thermodynamic incylinder data, and uses the Extended Zeldovich mechanism to model NO. Results show that the model responded very well to changes in speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level. It matched measured tail pipe NOx levels within 20%, using a single tuning setup. When the model was applied to varied injection rate shapes, it showed correct sensitivity to speed, load, injection timing, and EGR level, but the absolute level was well outside the target accuracy. The same limitation was seen when applying the Plee NOx model.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Technical Paper

Identifying Optimal Operating Points in Terms of Engineering Constraints and Regulated Emissions in Modern Diesel Engines

In recent decades, “physics-based” gas-dynamics simulation tools have been employed to reduce development timescales of IC engines by enabling engineers to carry out parametric examinations and optimisation of alternative engine geometry and operating strategy configurations using desktop PCs. However to date, these models have proved inadequate for optimisation of in-cylinder combustion and emissions characteristics thus extending development timescales through additional experimental development efforts. This research paper describes how a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) with reduced chemistry can be employed to successfully determine in-cylinder pressure, heat release and emissions trends from a diesel fuelled engine operated in compression ignition direct injection mode using computations which are completed in 147 seconds per cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulated Results Detailing the Sensitivity of Natural Gas HCCI Engines to Fuel Composition

Natural gas quality, in terms of the volume fraction of higher hydrocarbons, strongly affects the auto-ignition characteristics of the air-fuel mixture, the engine performance and its controllability. The influence of natural gas composition on engine operation has been investigated both experimentally and through chemical kinetic based cycle simulation. A range of two component gas mixtures has been tested with methane as the base fuel. The equivalence ratio (0.3), the compression ratio (19.8), and the engine speed (1000 rpm) were held constant in order to isolate the impact of fuel autoignition chemistry. For each fuel mixture, the start of combustion was phased near top dead center (TDC) and then the inlet mixture temperature was reduced. These experimental results have been utilized as a source of data for the validation of a chemical kinetic based full-cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Estimating Instantaneous Losses Within a Firing IC Engine Using Synthetic Variables

A new method for instantaneous friction estimation in firing internal combustion engines has been developed in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. This Synthetic Variable approach, which has previously been used for combustion quality diagnostics, focuses on carefully measuring instantaneous engine speed and other easily measurable engine variables and combining them with dynamic models of other engine processes. This approach numerically strips away the dynamic effects that mask friction effects on engine speed and reveals friction estimates with clarity. This information could be useful for engine designers and developers to assist in accurately understanding the sources of instantaneous friction within the running engine. The friction results from these studies have been very encouraging.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston Crevice Flows and Lubricant Oil Vaporization on Diesel Engine Deposits

The effect of piston ring pack crevice flow and lubricant oil vaporization on heavy-duty diesel engine deposits is investigated numerically using a multidimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, coupled with Chemkin II, and computational grids that resolve part of the crevice region appropriately. Improvements have been made to the code to be able to deal with the complex geometry of the ring pack, and sub-models for the crevice flow dynamics, lubricating oil vaporization and combustion, soot formation and deposition were also added to the code. Eight parametric cases were simulated under reacting conditions using detailed chemical kinetics to determine the effects of variations of lube-oil film thickness, distribution of the oil film thickness, number of injection pulses, and the main injection timing on engine soot deposition. The results show that crevice-borne hydrocarbon species play an important role in deposit formation on crevice surfaces.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Property Changes on Heavy-Duty HCCI Combustion

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) offers the potential for significant improvements in efficiency with a substantial reduction in emissions. However, achieving heavy-duty (HD) HCCI engine operation at practical loads and speeds presents numerous technical challenges. Successful expansion of the HCCI operating range to include the full range of load and speed must be accomplished while maintaining proper combustion phasing, control of maximum cylinder pressure and pressure rise rates, and low emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM). Significant progress in this endeavour has been made through a collaborative research effort between Caterpillar and ExxonMobil. This paper evaluates fuel effects on HCCI engine operating range and emissions. Test fuels were developed in the gasoline and diesel boiling range covering a broad range of ignition quality, fuel chemistry, and volatility.
Journal Article

Early Direct-Injection, Low-Temperature Combustion of Diesel Fuel in an Optical Engine Utilizing a 15-Hole, Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle

Low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel was studied in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, optical engine employing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle (10 holes × 70° and 5 holes × 35°) with 103-μm-diameter orifices. This nozzle configuration provided the spray targeting necessary to contain the direct-injected diesel fuel within the piston bowl for injection timings as early as 70° before top dead center. Spray-visualization movies, acquired using a high-speed camera, show that impingement of liquid fuel on the piston surface can result when the in-cylinder temperature and density at the time of injection are sufficiently low. Seven single- and two-parameter sweeps around a 4.82-bar gross indicated mean effective pressure load point were performed to map the sensitivity of the combustion and emissions to variations in injection timing, injection pressure, equivalence ratio, simulated exhaust-gas recirculation, intake temperature, intake boost pressure, and load.
Technical Paper

Ducted Fuel Injection: Effects of Stand-Off Distance and Duct Length on Soot Reduction

Ducted fuel injection (DFI) has been shown to be an effective method to significantly reduce soot formation in mixing controlled compression ignition (MCCI) diesel combustion. This reduction has been demonstrated in both combustion vessels and in an optical engine. The mechanisms driving the soot reduction are to date not fully understood. Optimal duct configurations are also not immediately evident. The objective of this study is to show the effects of two geometric variables, namely distance from fuel injector orifice exit to duct inlet (0.1-6 mm) for a 2x14 mm duct, and duct length variation (8-14 mm) at a given stand-off distance of 0.1 mm. A 138 μm on-axis single-orifice injector operated at 100-250 MPa was used in a heated, continuous flow, constant pressure vessel with optical access.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Kinetic Models for Surrogate Diesel Fuels

Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations that include realistic combustion/emissions chemistry hold the promise of significantly shortening the development time for advanced high-efficiency, low-emission engines. However, significant challenges must be overcome to realize this potential. This paper discusses these challenges in the context of diesel combustion and outlines a technical program based on the use of surrogate fuels that sufficiently emulate the chemical complexity inherent in conventional diesel fuel.