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Technical Paper

Two-Ring Piston Development

A new 2-ring piston package has been developed which has proven successful in internal combustion engines. The need for a compact piston arrangement is discussed along with the steps followed to arrive at excellent oil economy. The paper presents other advantages related to cost savings, lower wear, and reduced engine friction. The paper discusses applications of the compact piston package along with its advantages in designing compact engines.
Technical Paper

Surface Fatigue Research with the Geared Roller Test Machine

Fatigue failure of machine components subjected to high contact pressures is rapidly becoming recognized as a serious design limitation. Confusion has resulted from grouping three distinct types of contact fatigue failure under the term “pitting” A Geared Roller Test Machine is described that reproduced each of the three modes of failure. The stress-life relationships obtained for rollers tested under conditions of rolling plus sliding correlated well with actual gear performance. The sensitivity of the test to changes in material, micorstructure, and processing variables is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Spherical Rod End Test Development and Results

This Paper: 1. Shows that the present spherical rod end manufacturer's rotational tests, which are intended to select the best bearing material, do not necessarily select the best materials for the push/pull linkage requirements of earthmoving machinery. 2. Emphasizes the need to perform push/pull comparative testing as defined in SAE J1367 on spherical rod ends to determine acceptable materials for earthmoving equipment application. This test is in contrast to rotational testing presently being performed by spherical rod end manufacturers.
Technical Paper


TRACTORS operate in a wide range of conditions, from desert to swamp. At all times, the final-drive seals must keep the oil in and the dirt out. In this paper, the authors discuss the latest developments in seal design and the resulting improvements in performance. Efficient performance of a tractor final-drive seal depends upon a number of factors, including: bellows and bellows-boot operation, seal load and area, seal material, wear washer, and gasket structures.
Technical Paper

Power Train-Vehicle Modeling to Simulate Shifting Transients of Off-Highway Vehicles

Analytic modeling and analog computer simulation techniques are presented for determining power train transient responses excited by clutch-actuated gear shifts. A method for describing the dynamics of a transmission arrangement having several clutches and interconnected planetary gear sets is considered in detail. Simulation model testing is directed toward optimizing system design parameters and evaluating power train component capability and vehicle shift-feel. Data reduction techniques applied to model responses of torque and speed will yield appropriate spectrums representative of simulated work cycle. The spectrum data are used to predict hours of life for gears, bearings, and driveshafts, according to cumulative fatigue damage theory.
Technical Paper

Matching the Cutting Edge to the Machine

Advance in earthmoving technology has made necessary a corresponding advance in cutting edge technology. In adopting the concepts of matching the cutting edge to the machine, or possibly the job requirements of the machine, in rare instances it is found that the cutting edges employed in the 1930's and 1940's are satisfactory; however, in general, the increase in horsepower and carrying capacity of earthmoving machinery has necessitated a vast increase in the strength and wear properties of the cutting edge. The development of these properties, based on academic, laboratory, and field precepts, has advanced hand-in-hand with machine developments.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of the Caterpillar 7155 Semi-Automatic Heavy-Duty Truck Transmission

The heavy-duty truck industry has seen the need for a change in the concept of transmission design for many years. Several improvements have been made and others attempted, but greater improvement is needed to match the engine's delivery to the vehicle's demand. Driver performance can be improved and fatigue reduced by lowering the effort and skill required to make smooth, consistent starts and ratio changes. This paper discusses a solution to this need in the design and development of a semi-automatic, pneumatically controlled, constant mesh transmission.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar's Inertia Weld Process

A new friction welding process, Caterpillar Inertia Welding, is described in this paper. The two distinguishing characteristics of this form of welding are a continuously decreasing rotational velocity and a continuously changing torque at the weld interface. This enables the forging of many previously “difficult-to-weld” materials, such as superalloys. Such welds also exhibit excellent fatigue properties. Because this process produces high strength bonds in dissimilar materials, the designer is able to create composite parts using the special properties of each material in response to the needs of the design.
Technical Paper

Amplitude Distribution Analyzer for the Measurement of Gearing Load Spectra

Gearing load spectra data collected under actual working conditions help a designer predict the fatigue life of power train components. Considerable time was required in the past to collect and reduce these data to a form suitable for design use. A vehicle mounted instrumentation system consisting of a strain gaged shaft, a shaft encoder-slip ring assembly, and an amplitude distribution analyzer, was developed which performs load measurements. At the test's conclusion, it provides a spectrum analysis in printed histogram form.
Technical Paper

A Billion Engine Hours On Aluminum Bearings

HIGH load-carrying ability and fatigue strength, good embeddabiltty and conformability, and resistance to wear, seizure, and corrosion are factors that sold them on aluminum for bearings, the authors report. Bonded steel backing, they say, makes aluminum bearings even better. Retaining aluminum's good properties, it improves some of its bad points and gives such advantages as: Reduced bearing clearances, compared with those used with solid-aluminum bearings. No life limit in operation below 5000 psi fatigue stress value. Less sensitivity to high oil temperatures. Negligible wear (after 29,000 hr in one test). Simpler and less expensive bearing-locating designs. Special excellence for high-load, high-speed applications.