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Technical Paper

Whole Body Vibration Levels: A Realistic Baseline for Standards

1976-02-01
760415
Statistical measures of whole-body vibration from ambulation are shown to be higher than those from operation of earthmoving machinery and significantly higher than published guidelines for human exposure to whole-body vibration. The inconsistency of human response to low level vibration of technological origin as compared to human imperceptiveness to high level vibration from ambulation is discussed.
Technical Paper

Two-Ring Piston Development

1969-02-01
690750
A new 2-ring piston package has been developed which has proven successful in internal combustion engines. The need for a compact piston arrangement is discussed along with the steps followed to arrive at excellent oil economy. The paper presents other advantages related to cost savings, lower wear, and reduced engine friction. The paper discusses applications of the compact piston package along with its advantages in designing compact engines.
Technical Paper

The Cushion Hitch Tractor-Scraper — From Concept to Market

1968-04-09
680248
The Cushion Hitch is a unique application of vibration absorber theory to a self-propelled tractor-scraper. The scraper mass is utilized as a damper for suppressing predominate bouncing motions of the tractor unit. A more comfortable and safer operator ride, with increased productivity, results from the Cushion Hitch application. This paper describes development of the early prototype design as well as the final production version. Particular emphasis is given to both the hydraulic and the structural characteristics of the system.
Technical Paper

Surface Fatigue Research with the Geared Roller Test Machine

1963-01-01
630050
Fatigue failure of machine components subjected to high contact pressures is rapidly becoming recognized as a serious design limitation. Confusion has resulted from grouping three distinct types of contact fatigue failure under the term “pitting” A Geared Roller Test Machine is described that reproduced each of the three modes of failure. The stress-life relationships obtained for rollers tested under conditions of rolling plus sliding correlated well with actual gear performance. The sensitivity of the test to changes in material, micorstructure, and processing variables is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Supercharged Diesel Performance versus Intake and Exhaust Conditions

1953-01-01
530209
THIS paper presents results which will answer many of the problems facing an engine manufacturer in the selection of the most suitable types and sizes of superchargers to use with a line of engines. Although performance curves of production model diesels are available, decisions are still needed in choosing peak supercharging pressures, drive means, and size and effectiveness of intercoolers, if any. The author describes the use of a typical model to determine response to variation in intake and exhaust conditions, resulting in data which will assist in evaluating engine potentials with any system of supercharging. Thus, supercharger selection for a particular line of engines is aided by knowledge of engine characteristics as a second-stage compressor.
Technical Paper

RESILIENT FACE SEALS FOR TRACTOR FINAL DRIVES

1958-01-01
580012
TRACTORS operate in a wide range of conditions, from desert to swamp. At all times, the final-drive seals must keep the oil in and the dirt out. In this paper, the authors discuss the latest developments in seal design and the resulting improvements in performance. Efficient performance of a tractor final-drive seal depends upon a number of factors, including: bellows and bellows-boot operation, seal load and area, seal material, wear washer, and gasket structures.
Technical Paper

Power Train-Vehicle Modeling to Simulate Shifting Transients of Off-Highway Vehicles

1972-02-01
720044
Analytic modeling and analog computer simulation techniques are presented for determining power train transient responses excited by clutch-actuated gear shifts. A method for describing the dynamics of a transmission arrangement having several clutches and interconnected planetary gear sets is considered in detail. Simulation model testing is directed toward optimizing system design parameters and evaluating power train component capability and vehicle shift-feel. Data reduction techniques applied to model responses of torque and speed will yield appropriate spectrums representative of simulated work cycle. The spectrum data are used to predict hours of life for gears, bearings, and driveshafts, according to cumulative fatigue damage theory.
Technical Paper

Matching the Cutting Edge to the Machine

1964-01-01
640191
Advance in earthmoving technology has made necessary a corresponding advance in cutting edge technology. In adopting the concepts of matching the cutting edge to the machine, or possibly the job requirements of the machine, in rare instances it is found that the cutting edges employed in the 1930's and 1940's are satisfactory; however, in general, the increase in horsepower and carrying capacity of earthmoving machinery has necessitated a vast increase in the strength and wear properties of the cutting edge. The development of these properties, based on academic, laboratory, and field precepts, has advanced hand-in-hand with machine developments.
Technical Paper

Electronic/Hydraulic Transmission Control System for Off-Highway Hauling Vehicles

1985-04-01
850783
For some time, Caterpillar Tractor Co. has been marketing a new transmission control system for wheel-tractor scrapers and off-highway trucks. The new system is composed of an electronic microprocessor control box coupled with an individual clutch modulation hydraulic control. This system has resulted in increased vehicle productivity, improved reliability and serviceability, decreased complexity, and increased commonality of parts. This paper describes the concept, design, and test and evaluation process used to develop the new controls before production.
Technical Paper

Designing An Engine Governor for Improved Dynamic Performance: An Analog Simulation Procedure

1964-01-01
640187
Recent developments in engine designs have produced engines that have shorter response time, thus making it increasingly difficult to control speed. Dynamic response of the engine and governor system is usually neglected when designing a governor. The recommended procedure for designing an engine governor is to develop a preliminary static design of the governor, analyze the engine using frequency response, mathematically analyze the static design of the governor, similate the two analyses on an electrical analog computer, and then determine from the computer results the changes that are necessary to get a satisfactory governor design.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of the Caterpillar 7155 Semi-Automatic Heavy-Duty Truck Transmission

1975-02-01
750729
The heavy-duty truck industry has seen the need for a change in the concept of transmission design for many years. Several improvements have been made and others attempted, but greater improvement is needed to match the engine's delivery to the vehicle's demand. Driver performance can be improved and fatigue reduced by lowering the effort and skill required to make smooth, consistent starts and ratio changes. This paper discusses a solution to this need in the design and development of a semi-automatic, pneumatically controlled, constant mesh transmission.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar's Inertia Weld Process

1966-02-01
660470
A new friction welding process, Caterpillar Inertia Welding, is described in this paper. The two distinguishing characteristics of this form of welding are a continuously decreasing rotational velocity and a continuously changing torque at the weld interface. This enables the forging of many previously “difficult-to-weld” materials, such as superalloys. Such welds also exhibit excellent fatigue properties. Because this process produces high strength bonds in dissimilar materials, the designer is able to create composite parts using the special properties of each material in response to the needs of the design.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar's Folded Core Radiator

1986-04-01
860765
THE CATERPILLAR FOLDED CORE RADIATOR IS A NEW RADIATOR FOR VEHICLES AND STATIONARY ENGINE APPLICATIONS. THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THIS DESIGN ARE TO GIVE THE USER AN INCREASED VALUE COOLING SYSTEM BY REDUCING RADIATOR REPAIR COSTS AND IMPROVING AIR-SIDE PLUGGING RESISTANCE. AS WELL AS PROVIDE THE VEHICLE DESIGNER WITH INCREASED APPLICATION DESIGN FLEXIBILITY. THIS IS TO BE ACCOMPLISHED WHILE MAINTAINING PERFORMANCE AND LIFE GOALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONVENTIONAL RADIATOR. THE FOLDED CORE IS A MODULAR DESIGN HAVING THE MODULES INSTALLED AT AN ANGLE TO THE FAN AIR STREAM RESULTING IN THE FOLDED APPEARANCE. COMMON MODULE SIZES ARE USED ACROSS THE MANY RADIATOR APPLICATIONS REDUCING INVENTORY REQUIREMENTS AT THE ASSEMBLY PLANT AND PARTS DEPOTS AND INCREASING INDIVIDUAL MODULE PRODUCTION VOLUME. THIS RADIATOR DESIGN IS REVIEWED FROM CONCEPT TO PRODUCTION.
Technical Paper

Applications of Inertia Welding

1968-02-01
680047
Inertia welding is a friction welding process using energy stored in a rotating mass as the source of heat and mechanical work. The process has been described in previous publications. The state of development of this manufacturing process, with respect to complexity of design and dissimilar metal welding, is the subject of this article. The successful applications of inertia welding now in production establish the utility of this versatile process while current developments portray exciting future possibilities.
Technical Paper

Amplitude Distribution Analyzer for the Measurement of Gearing Load Spectra

1972-02-01
720800
Gearing load spectra data collected under actual working conditions help a designer predict the fatigue life of power train components. Considerable time was required in the past to collect and reduce these data to a form suitable for design use. A vehicle mounted instrumentation system consisting of a strain gaged shaft, a shaft encoder-slip ring assembly, and an amplitude distribution analyzer, was developed which performs load measurements. At the test's conclusion, it provides a spectrum analysis in printed histogram form.
Technical Paper

A Billion Engine Hours On Aluminum Bearings

1956-01-01
560058
HIGH load-carrying ability and fatigue strength, good embeddabiltty and conformability, and resistance to wear, seizure, and corrosion are factors that sold them on aluminum for bearings, the authors report. Bonded steel backing, they say, makes aluminum bearings even better. Retaining aluminum's good properties, it improves some of its bad points and gives such advantages as: Reduced bearing clearances, compared with those used with solid-aluminum bearings. No life limit in operation below 5000 psi fatigue stress value. Less sensitivity to high oil temperatures. Negligible wear (after 29,000 hr in one test). Simpler and less expensive bearing-locating designs. Special excellence for high-load, high-speed applications.
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