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Technical Paper

Water Injection Benefits in a 3-Cylinder Downsized SI-Engine

With progressing electrification of automotive powertrains and demands to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, a combination of an electric motor and downsized turbocharged spark-ignited engine has been recognized as a viable solution. The SI engine must be optimized, and preferentially downsized, to reduce tailpipe CO2 and other emissions. However, drives to increase BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and compression ratio/thermal efficiency increase propensities of knocking (auto-ignition of residual unburnt charge before the propagating flame reaches it) in downsized engines. Currently, knock is mitigated by retarding the ignition timing, but this has several limitations. Another option identified in the last decade (following trials of similar technology in aircraft combustion engines) is water injection, which suppresses knocking largely by reducing local in-cylinder mixture temperatures due to its latent heat of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Wake and Unsteady Surface-Pressure Measurements on an SUV with Rear-End Extensions

Previous research on both small-scale and full-scale vehicles shows that base extensions are an effective method to increase the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake size. These extensions decrease drag at zero yaw, but show an even larger improvement at small yaw angles. In this paper, rear extensions are investigated on an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel with focus on the wake flow and on the unsteady behavior of the surface pressures near the base perimeter. To increase the effect of the extensions on the wake flow, the investigated configurations have a closed upper- and lower grille (closed-cooling) and the underbody has been smoothed with additional panels. This paper aims to analyze differences in flow characteristics on the wake of an SUV at 0° and 2.5° yaw, caused by different sets of extensions attached to the base perimeter. Extensions with several lengths are investigated with and without a kick.
Technical Paper

Visualization of EGR Influence on Diesel Combustion With Long Ignition Delay in a Heavy-duty Engine

The effects of EGR on diesel combustion were visually examined in a single-cylinder heavy duty research engine with a low compression ratio, low swirl, a CR fuel injection system and an eight-orifice nozzle. Optical access was primarily obtained through the cylinder head. The effects of EGR were found to be significant. NOx emissions were reduced from over 500 ppm at 0% EGR to 5 ppm at 55% EGR. At higher levels of EGR (approximately 35% or more) there was a loss in efficiency. Constant fuel masses were injected. Results from the optical measurements and global emission data were compared in order to obtain a better understanding of the spray behaviour and mixing process. Optical measurements provide fundamental insights by visualizing air motion and combustion behaviour. The NOx reductions observed might be explained by reductions in oxygen concentration associated with the increases in EGR.
Technical Paper

Variation of Vehicle NVH Properties due to Component Eigenfrequency Shifting - Basic Limits of Predictability

Many papers have been published on variation in noise and vibration as well as transfer function characteristics between individual vehicles with nominally identical design [1], [2] and [3]. However, prediction of Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) properties is mostly based on detailed, deterministic modelling with FE- and BE-methods. Time and computer resources for creation and experimental updating of these models need to be optimised with respect to achievable prediction accuracy, and in this context statistical, energy flow based methods (SEA, EFA etc.) should be considered as an efficient alternative for medium and high frequency NVH prediction. A basic study of variability for transfer function of multimodal systems, using ideal acoustic and structural components with parameters corresponding to vehicle body plates and cavities is performed. Well known theory on variability, originally developed for room acoustics, is demonstrated to apply also for simple plates.
Technical Paper

Using Multi-Rate Filter Banks to Detect Internal Combustion Engine Knock

The wavelet transform is used in the analysis of the cylinder pressure trace and the ionic current trace of a knocking, single-cylinder, spark ignition engine. Using the wavelet transform offers a significant reduction of mathematical operations when compared with traditional filtering techniques based on the Fourier transform. It is shown that conventional knock analysis in terms of average energy in the time domain (AETD), corresponding to the signal's energy content, and maximum amplitude in the time domain (MATD), corresponding to the maximum amplitude of the bandpass filtered signal, can be applied to both the reconstructed filtered cylinder pressure and the wavelet coefficients. The use of the filter coefficients makes possible a significant additional reduction in calculation effort in comparison with filters based on the windowed Fourier transform.
Technical Paper

Use of Repeated Crash-Tests to Determine Local Longitudinal and Shear Stiffness of the Vehicle Front with Crush

Crash-test-data on local longitudinal and shear stiffness of the vehicle front is needed to estimate impact severity from car deformation in offset or pole impacts, and to predict vehicle acceleration and compartment intrusion in car-to-car crashes. Repeated full frontal crash-tests were carried out with a load-cell barrier to determine the local longitudinal stiffness with increasing crush. Repeated off-set tests were run to determine shear stiffness. Two single high-speed tests (full frontal and offset) were carried out and compared to the repeated tests to determine the rate sensitivity of the front structure. Four repetitions at 33.4 km/h provided equivalent energy absorption to a single 66.7 km/h test, when rebound was considered. Power-train inertial effects were estimated from highspeed tests with and without power-train. Speed effects averaged 2% per [m/s] for crush up to power-train impact, and post-crash measurements were a reasonable estimate of front-structure stiffness.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Quantification of Flow Uniformity Measurements in a Slotted Wall Wind Tunnel

The need for a more complete understanding of the flow behavior in aerodynamic wind tunnels has increased as they have become vital tools not only for vehicle development, but also for vehicle certification. One important aspect of the behavior is the empty test section flow, which in a conventional tunnel should be as uniform as possible. In order to assess the uniformity and ensure consistent behavior over time, accurate measurements need to be performed regularly. Furthermore, the uncertainties and errors of the measurements need to be minimized in order to resolve small non-uniformities. In this work, the quantification of the measurement uncertainties from the full measurement chain of the new flow uniformity measurement rig for the Volvo Cars aerodynamic wind tunnel is presented. The simulation based method used to account for flow interference of the probe mount is also discussed.
Journal Article

Tyre Pattern Features and Their Effects on Passenger Vehicle Drag

In light of the drive for energy efficiency and low CO2 emissions, extensive research is performed to reduce vehicle aerodynamic drag. The wheels are relatively shielded from the main flow compared to the exterior of the passenger car; however, they are typically responsible for around 25% of the overall vehicle drag. This contribution is large as the wheels and tyres protrude into the flow and change the flow structure around the vehicle underbody. Given that the tyre is the first part of the wheel to get in contact with the oncoming flow, its shape and features have a significant impact on the flow pattern that develops. This study aims at identifying the general effects of two main tyre features, the longitudinal rain grooves and lateral pattern grooves, using both Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel tests. This is performed by cutting generic representations of these details into identical slick tyres.
Technical Paper

Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Model: Further Development and Implementation for 3-D Simulation of Combustion in SI Engine

A Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Model is modified and implemented into the FIRE code for use in 3D computations of combustion in an SI-engine. The modifications are done to account for mixture inhomogeneity, and mixture compression through the dependency of local equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature on the chemical time scale and a global reaction time scale. The model is also subjected to further evaluation against experimental data, covering different mixture and turbulence conditions. The combustion process in a 4-valve pentroof combustion chamber is simulated and heat release rates and spatial flame distribution are evaluated against experimental data. The computations show good agreement with the experiments. The model has proven to be a robust and time effective simulation tool with good predictive ability.
Technical Paper

Transient Measurements of Discharge Coefficients of Diesel Nozzles

The discharge coefficient is an important functional parameter of an injector characterising the nozzle flow, in terms of cavitation and hydraulic flip, which subsequently play a crucial role in the spray formation and development. Thus it is important to have the possibility of measuring instantaneously the value of the discharge coefficient. The method proposed is based on the measurement of force developed during the impingement of the fuel jet on a normal target. In this study the method was verified experimentally and also the variation of a diesel nozzle discharge coefficient over the entire injection time was studied. The impingement results were in good agreement, when compared with the results from mass flow measurements both at high and low injection pressures. Strong variations of the discharge coefficient during the injector needle opening and closing periods were seen.
Technical Paper

Toward an Effective Virtual Powertrain Calibration System

Due to stricter emission regulations and more environmental awareness, the powertrain systems are moving toward higher fuel efficiency and lower emissions. In response to these pressing needs, new technologies have been designed and implemented by manufacturers. As a result of increasing complexity of the powertrain systems, their control and optimization become more and more challenging. Virtual powertrain calibration, also known as model-based calibration, has been introduced to transfer a part of test bench testing into a virtual environment, and hence considerably reduce time and cost of product development process while increasing the product quality. Nevertheless, virtual calibration has not yet reached its full potential in industrial applications. Volvo Penta has recently developed a virtual test cell named VIRTEC, which is used in an ongoing pilot project to meet the Stage V emission standards.
Journal Article

Time and Spatially Resolved Temperature Measurements of a Combusting Diesel Spray Impinging on a Wall

The interaction between a combusting diesel spray and a wall was studied by measuring the spray flame temperature time and spatially resolved. The influence of injection sequences, injection pressure and gas conditions on the heat transfer between the combusting spray and the wall was investigated by measuring the flame temperature during the complete injection event. The flame temperature was measured by an emission based optical method and determined by comparing the relative emission intensities from the soot in the flame at two wavelength intervals. The measurements were done by employing a monochromatic and non intensified high speed camera, an array of mirrors, interference filters and a beam splitter. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature (HP/HT) spray rig at conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct injected diesel engine prior to the injection of fuel.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Cycle and Working Fluid Selection for Waste Heat Recovery in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Thermodynamic power cycles have been shown to provide an excellent method for waste heat recovery (WHR) in internal combustion engines. By capturing and reusing heat that would otherwise be lost to the environment, the efficiency of engines can be increased. This study evaluates the maximum power output of different cycles used for WHR in a heavy duty Diesel engine with a focus on working fluid selection. Typically, only high temperature heat sources are evaluated for WHR in engines, whereas this study also considers the potential of WHR from the coolant. To recover the heat, four types of power cycles were evaluated: the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), transcritical Rankine cycle, trilateral flash cycle, and organic flash cycle. This paper allows for a direct comparison of these cycles by simulating all cycles using the same boundary conditions and working fluids.
Technical Paper

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric.
Technical Paper

The Role of Aerodynamics in the 1955 Le Mans Crash

In the 1955 Le Mans race the worst crash in motor racing history occurred and this accident would change the face of motor racing for decades. After the crash numerous investigations on the disaster were performed, and fifty years after some interesting books were launched on the subject. However, a number of key questions remain unsolved; and one open area is the influence of aerodynamics on the scenario, since the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR involved in the crash was equipped with an air-brake and its influence on the accident is basically unknown. This work may be considered as a first attempt to establish CFD as a tool to aid in resolving aerodynamic aspects in motor sport accidents and in the present paper, CFD has been used to investigate the aerodynamics and estimate the drag and lift coefficients of the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR used in the Le Mans race of 1955.
Technical Paper

The Protective Effects of Rearward Facing CRS: An Overview of Possibilities and Problems Associated with Child Restraints for Children Aged 0-3 Years

Small children cannot use adult restraint systems in passenger cars. Their size, anatomy, tolerance to trauma and their social behaviour are factors that must be considered when designing child restraint systems (CRS). Surprisingly, and differently from adult restraint systems, CRS are not designed in the same way indicating that in different parts of the world, the analysis of the best protective systems is not the same. In the Nordic countries the tradition has been long in protecting children up to the age of 3 years by rearward facing systems. As they have proven to be very effective, it is important to share the experience with countries where less effective restraint systems for small children are used. In this paper, several aspects of rearward facing systems are presented.
Technical Paper

The Influence of PRF and Commercial Fuels with High Octane Number on the Auto-ignition Timing of an Engine Operated in HCCI Combustion Mode with Negative Valve Overlap

A single-cylinder engine was operated in HCCI combustion mode with different kinds of commercial fuels. The HCCI combustion was generated by creating a negative valve overlap (early exhaust valve closing combined with late intake valve opening) thus trapping a large amount of residuals (∼ 55%). Fifteen different fuels with high octane numbers were tested six of which were primary reference fuels (PRF's) and nine were commercial fuels or reference fuels. The engine was operated at constant operational parameters (speed/load, valve timing and equivalence ratio, intake air temperature, compression ratio, etc.) changing only the fuel type while the engine was running. Changing the fuel affected the auto-ignition timing, represented by the 50% mass fraction burned location (CA50). However these changes were not consistent with the classical RON and MON numbers, which are measures of the knock resistance of the fuel. Indeed, no correlation was found between CA50 and the RON or MON numbers.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Wheel Design on the Aerodynamic Drag of Passenger Vehicles

Approximately 25 % of a passenger vehicle’s aerodynamic drag comes directly or indirectly from its wheels, indicating that the rim geometry is highly relevant for increasing the vehicle’s overall energy efficiency. An extensive experimental study is presented where a parametric model of the rim design was developed, and statistical methods were employed to isolate the aerodynamic effects of certain geometric rim parameters. In addition to wind tunnel force measurements, this study employed the flowfield measurement techniques of wake surveys, wheelhouse pressure measurements, and base pressure measurements to investigate and explain the most important parameters’ effects on the flowfield. In addition, a numerical model of the vehicle with various rim geometries was developed and used to further elucidate the effects of certain geometric parameters on the flow field.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Multirow Nozzles on Diesel Combustion

In a diesel engine, the combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes. To meet the stringent emission legislations of the future, which will demand substantial reductions of NOX and particulate emissions from diesel engines, the spray and mixing processes play a major roll. Different fuel injection systems and injection strategies have been developed to achieve better performance and lower emissions from the diesel engine almost without investigating the influence of the injector nozzle orifices. A reduction in the nozzle orifice diameter is important for an increased mixing rate and formation of smaller droplets which is beneficial from emissions and fuel consumption point of view, as long as the local air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) is kept at a sufficiently lean level.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Leaner Charge and Swirl on Diesel Combustion

Substantial reduction of NOX and particulate emissions from diesel engines will be required by the emission legislation in the future. In a diesel engine, the combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes. Parameters of importance are droplet size, droplet distribution, injection velocity, in-cylinder flow (convection and turbulence) and cylinder charge temperature/pressure. The mixing is controlled by convective and turbulent mixing due to in-cylinder charge motion, momentum transfer and turbulence induced by the injection process. The most important processes are known to be the turbulent macro- and micromixing. Smaller nozzle orifices are believed to increase mixing rate, due to smaller droplet size leading to faster evaporation. Dimensional analysis suggests that the turbulent mixing time, τmix, scales with orifice diameter, d.