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Technical Paper

Use of Repeated Crash-Tests to Determine Local Longitudinal and Shear Stiffness of the Vehicle Front with Crush

Crash-test-data on local longitudinal and shear stiffness of the vehicle front is needed to estimate impact severity from car deformation in offset or pole impacts, and to predict vehicle acceleration and compartment intrusion in car-to-car crashes. Repeated full frontal crash-tests were carried out with a load-cell barrier to determine the local longitudinal stiffness with increasing crush. Repeated off-set tests were run to determine shear stiffness. Two single high-speed tests (full frontal and offset) were carried out and compared to the repeated tests to determine the rate sensitivity of the front structure. Four repetitions at 33.4 km/h provided equivalent energy absorption to a single 66.7 km/h test, when rebound was considered. Power-train inertial effects were estimated from highspeed tests with and without power-train. Speed effects averaged 2% per [m/s] for crush up to power-train impact, and post-crash measurements were a reasonable estimate of front-structure stiffness.
Journal Article

Time and Spatially Resolved Temperature Measurements of a Combusting Diesel Spray Impinging on a Wall

The interaction between a combusting diesel spray and a wall was studied by measuring the spray flame temperature time and spatially resolved. The influence of injection sequences, injection pressure and gas conditions on the heat transfer between the combusting spray and the wall was investigated by measuring the flame temperature during the complete injection event. The flame temperature was measured by an emission based optical method and determined by comparing the relative emission intensities from the soot in the flame at two wavelength intervals. The measurements were done by employing a monochromatic and non intensified high speed camera, an array of mirrors, interference filters and a beam splitter. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature (HP/HT) spray rig at conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct injected diesel engine prior to the injection of fuel.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Cycle and Working Fluid Selection for Waste Heat Recovery in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Thermodynamic power cycles have been shown to provide an excellent method for waste heat recovery (WHR) in internal combustion engines. By capturing and reusing heat that would otherwise be lost to the environment, the efficiency of engines can be increased. This study evaluates the maximum power output of different cycles used for WHR in a heavy duty Diesel engine with a focus on working fluid selection. Typically, only high temperature heat sources are evaluated for WHR in engines, whereas this study also considers the potential of WHR from the coolant. To recover the heat, four types of power cycles were evaluated: the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), transcritical Rankine cycle, trilateral flash cycle, and organic flash cycle. This paper allows for a direct comparison of these cycles by simulating all cycles using the same boundary conditions and working fluids.
Technical Paper

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric.
Technical Paper

The Protective Effects of Rearward Facing CRS: An Overview of Possibilities and Problems Associated with Child Restraints for Children Aged 0-3 Years

Small children cannot use adult restraint systems in passenger cars. Their size, anatomy, tolerance to trauma and their social behaviour are factors that must be considered when designing child restraint systems (CRS). Surprisingly, and differently from adult restraint systems, CRS are not designed in the same way indicating that in different parts of the world, the analysis of the best protective systems is not the same. In the Nordic countries the tradition has been long in protecting children up to the age of 3 years by rearward facing systems. As they have proven to be very effective, it is important to share the experience with countries where less effective restraint systems for small children are used. In this paper, several aspects of rearward facing systems are presented.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Multirow Nozzles on Diesel Combustion

In a diesel engine, the combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes. To meet the stringent emission legislations of the future, which will demand substantial reductions of NOX and particulate emissions from diesel engines, the spray and mixing processes play a major roll. Different fuel injection systems and injection strategies have been developed to achieve better performance and lower emissions from the diesel engine almost without investigating the influence of the injector nozzle orifices. A reduction in the nozzle orifice diameter is important for an increased mixing rate and formation of smaller droplets which is beneficial from emissions and fuel consumption point of view, as long as the local air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) is kept at a sufficiently lean level.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Leaner Charge and Swirl on Diesel Combustion

Substantial reduction of NOX and particulate emissions from diesel engines will be required by the emission legislation in the future. In a diesel engine, the combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes. Parameters of importance are droplet size, droplet distribution, injection velocity, in-cylinder flow (convection and turbulence) and cylinder charge temperature/pressure. The mixing is controlled by convective and turbulent mixing due to in-cylinder charge motion, momentum transfer and turbulence induced by the injection process. The most important processes are known to be the turbulent macro- and micromixing. Smaller nozzle orifices are believed to increase mixing rate, due to smaller droplet size leading to faster evaporation. Dimensional analysis suggests that the turbulent mixing time, τmix, scales with orifice diameter, d.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Elliptical Nozzle Holes on Combustion and Emission Formation in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

A serie of experiments were carried out to compare the combustion and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine using non-circular (elliptical) and circular shaped fuel injector nozzle holes. Elliptic nozzle holes have the potential to increase air entrainment into the spray, which could lead to decreased emissions from diesel combustion. Previous work [6,7] has shown some interesting results in a passenger car diesel engine and also in a single cylinder engine with optical access. The idea is based on results from investigations of gas jets, where the air entrainment for elliptical jets was increased substantially compared to circular jets. The present series of experiments were carried out to further investigate these effects. The non-circular holes, which were made with an aspect ratio of close to 2:1, have a similar flow rate as the conventional circular holes. Two different angles of the elliptical major axis to the injector centerline were used.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Charge Air and Fuel Injection Parameters on Combustion with High Levels of EGR in a HDDI Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

When increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to low temperature combustion, soot emissions first start to increase (due to reductions in soot oxidation), before decreasing to almost zero (due to very low rates of soot formation). At the EGR level where soot emissions start to increase, the NOx emissions are still low, but not low enough to comply with future emission standards. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the possibilities for moving the so-called “soot bump” (increase in soot) to higher EGR levels or reducing the magnitude of the soot bump. This involved an experimental investigation of parameters affecting the combustion and thus the engine-out emissions. The parameters investigated were: charge air pressure, injection pressure, EGR temperature and post injection (with different dwell times) for a wide range of EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Testing and Evaluation of Ignition Improvers for Ethanol in a DI Diesel Engine

The ignition delay of ethanol with different nitrate and polyethylene glycol based ignition improvers was investigated in a single-cylinder DI Diesel engine. The nitrate-based improvers provided a shorter ignition delay than the polyethylene glycol improvers, but the results indicate that the efficiency of the polyethylene glycol improvers increases with the length of the molecular chains. Comparison with reference fuels gives a cetane number of approximately 44 for ethanol with 4% of the best nitrate-based improver versus 40 for ethanol with 7% polyethylene glycol improver. It is shown, that the random ignition delay for all the fuels has a normal distribution, and that the reference fuel of every measurement series has a constant expected ignition delay. Ignition delay measurements in a constant-volume combustion vessel failed to produce the same trends as in the engine for the ethanol fuels.
Technical Paper

Surface Flow Visualization on a Full-Scale Passenger Car with Quantitative Tuft Image Processing

Flow visualization techniques are widely used in aerodynamics to investigate the surface trace pattern. In this experimental investigation, the surface flow pattern over the rear end of a full-scale passenger car is studied using tufts. The movement of the tufts is recorded with a DSLR still camera, which continuously takes pictures. A novel and efficient tuft image processing algorithm has been developed to extract the tuft orientations in each image. This allows the extraction of the mean tuft angle and other such statistics. From the extracted tuft angles, streamline plots are created to identify points of interest, such as saddle points as well as separation and reattachment lines. Furthermore, the information about the tuft orientation in each time step allows studying steady and unsteady flow phenomena. Hence, the tuft image processing algorithm provides more detailed information about the surface flow than the traditional tuft method.
Technical Paper

Supervisory Controller for a Light Duty Diesel Engine with an LNT-SCR After-Treatment System

Look ahead information can be used to improve the powertrain’s fuel consumption while efficiently controlling exhaust emissions. A passenger car propelled by a Euro 6d capable diesel engine is studied. In the conventional approach, the diesel powertrain subsystem control is rule based. It uses no information of future load requests but is operated with the objective of low engine out exhaust emission species until the Exhaust After-Treatment System (EATS) light off has occurred, even if fuel economy is compromised greatly. Upon EATS light off, the engine is operated more fuel efficiently since the EATS system is able to treat emissions effectively. This paper presents a supervisory control structure with the intended purpose to operate the complete powertrain using a minimum of fuel while improving the robustness of exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Sulphur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Trap Catalyst for Direct Injected Gasoline Engines

Sulphur poisoning and regeneration of NOx trap catalysts have been studied in synthetic exhausts and in an engine bench. Sulphur gradually poisoned the NOx storage sites in the axial direction of the NOx trap. During sulphur regenerations, hydrogen was found to be more efficient than carbon monoxide in removing the sulphur from the trap. The sulphur regeneration became more efficient the richer the environment (λ<1) and the higher the temperature (at least 600°C). H2S was found to be the main product during the sulphur regeneration. However, it was possible to reduce the H2S formation and instead produce more SO2 by running with lambda close to one or by pulsing lambda. Even if a relatively large amount of sulphur was removed from the NOx trap, these methods gave a much less efficient regeneration per sulphur atom removed than when running relatively rich constantly. Finally, a model that could explain this observation was proposed.
Technical Paper

Spray Combustion Simulation Based on Detailed Chemistry Approach for Diesel Fuel Surrogate Model

To reproduce the Diesel fuel structural effect on soot formation, the diesel oil surrogate chemical model has been developed, validated using constant volume and applied to 3-D engine calculations using the KIVA-3V code. To better predict soot production, the presence of toluene, A1CH3, which is a product of benzene alkylation, in the reaction mechanism of n-heptane oxidation has been assumed. Soot formation as a solid phase has been simulated via a finite-rate transition of the gaseous precursor of soot, A2R5, to graphite. The final mechanism consists of 68 species and 278 reactions. Reasonable agreement of predictions with constant volume experimental data, on ignition delay times, flame appearance, accumulated amount of soot produced and soot cloud evolution has been achieved. Then, the fuel surrogate model has been applied to 3-D simulation (on a sectored mesh) of the Volvo NED5 DI Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays Under Fuel Injection Pressures up to 150 MPa with Different Nozzle Geometries

Maximum fuel injection pressures for GDI engines is expected to increase due to positive effects on emissions and engine-efficiency. Current GDI injectors have maximum operating pressures of 35 MPa, but higher injection pressures have yielded promising reductions in particle number (PN) and improved combustion stability. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, and there have been few studies on fuel sprays formed at high injection pressures. This paper summarizes experimental studies on the properties of sprays formed at high injection pressures. The results of these experiments can be used as inputs for CFD simulations and studies on combustion behavior, emissions formation, and combustion system design. The experiments were conducted using an injection rate meter and optical methods in a constant volume spray chamber. Injection rate measurements were performed to determine the injectors’ flow characteristics.
Technical Paper

Speed Limit in City Area and Improvement of Vehicle Front Design for Pedestrian Impact Protection-A Computer Simulation Study

This paper presented a part of results from an ongoing project for pedestrian protection, which is carried out at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. A validated pedestrian mathematical model was used in this study to simulate vehicle-pedestrian impacts. A large number of simulations have been carried out with various parameters. The injury-related parameters concerning head, chest, pelvis and lower extremities were calculated to evaluate the effect of impact speed and vehicle front structure on the risk of pedestrian injuries. The effect of following vehicle parameters was studied: stiffness of bumper, hood edge, hood top, windscreen frame, and shape of vehicle front structures. A parameter study was conducted by modelling vehicle-pedestrian impacts with various sizes of cars, mini vans, and light trucks. This choice represents the trends of new vehicle fleet and their frequency of involvement in real world accidents.
Technical Paper

Soot Source Term Tabulation Strategy for Diesel Engine Simulations with SRM

In this work a soot source term tabulation strategy for soot predictions under Diesel engine conditions within the zero-dimensional Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) framework is presented. The DI-SRM accounts for detailed chemistry, in-homogeneities in the combustion chamber and turbulence-chemistry interactions. The existing implementation [1] was extended with a framework facilitating the use of tabulated soot source terms. The implementation allows now for using soot source terms provided by an online chemistry calculation, and for the use of a pre-calculated flamelet soot source term library. Diesel engine calculations were performed using the same detailed kinetic soot model in both configurations. The chemical mechanism for n-heptane used in this work is taken from Zeuch et al. [2] and consists of 121 species and 973 reactions including PAH and thermal NO chemistry. The engine case presented in [1] is used also for this work.
Technical Paper

Role of Late Soot Oxidation for Low Emission Combustion in a Diffusion-controlled, High-EGR, Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Soot formation and oxidation are complex and competing processes during diesel combustion. The balance between the two processes and their history determines engine-out soot values. Besides the efforts to lower soot formation with measures to influence the flame lift-off distance for example or to use HCCI-combustion, enhancement of late soot oxidation is of equal importance for low-λ diffusion-controlled low emissions combustion with EGR. The purpose of this study is to investigate soot oxidation in a heavy duty diesel engine by statistical analysis of engine data and in-cylinder endoscopic high speed photography together with CFD simulations with a main focus on large scale in-cylinder gas motion. Results from CFD simulations using a detailed soot model were used to reveal details about the soot oxidation.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Soot Emissions from a Direct Injection Diesel Engine using Water-in-Diesel Emulsion and Microemulsion Fuels

The emissions from a direct injection diesel engine measured according to the ECE R49 13-mode cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation are compared for diesel fuel without water addition, and for water-in-diesel as emulsion and microemulsion. The effect of water addition on the soot emissions was remarkably strong for both the emulsion and microemulsion fuels. The average weighted soot emission values for the 13-mode cycle were 0.0024 and 0.0023 g/kWh for the two most interesting emulsion and microemulsion fuels tested, respectively; 5-fold lower than the US 2007 emission limit.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx Emissions from a Light Duty DI Diesel Engine in Medium Load Conditions with High EGR Rates

The expansion of current driving cycles for emission regulations to higher load operation in the near future (such as the US06 supplement to the FTP-75 driving cycle) requires attention to low emission combustion concepts in medium to high load regimes. One possibility to reduce NO emissions is to increase the EGR rate. The combustion-temperature reducing effects of high EGR rates can significantly reduce NO formation, to the point where engine-out NOx emissions approach zero levels. However, engine-out soot and CO emissions typically increase at high EGR levels, due to the reduced soot and CO oxidation rates at reduced combustion temperatures and oxygen concentrations. The work presented in this paper focuses on different strategies to reduce soot and CO emissions associated with EGR rates of up to 50%, at which NO formation is largely avoided, but combustion temperatures are not low enough to consider the process as Low-Temperature Combustion (LTC).