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Journal Article

Water Injection Benefits in a 3-Cylinder Downsized SI-Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0034
With progressing electrification of automotive powertrains and demands to meet increasingly stringent emission regulations, a combination of an electric motor and downsized turbocharged spark-ignited engine has been recognized as a viable solution. The SI engine must be optimized, and preferentially downsized, to reduce tailpipe CO2 and other emissions. However, drives to increase BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and compression ratio/thermal efficiency increase propensities of knocking (auto-ignition of residual unburnt charge before the propagating flame reaches it) in downsized engines. Currently, knock is mitigated by retarding the ignition timing, but this has several limitations. Another option identified in the last decade (following trials of similar technology in aircraft combustion engines) is water injection, which suppresses knocking largely by reducing local in-cylinder mixture temperatures due to its latent heat of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Wake and Unsteady Surface-Pressure Measurements on an SUV with Rear-End Extensions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1545
Previous research on both small-scale and full-scale vehicles shows that base extensions are an effective method to increase the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake size. These extensions decrease drag at zero yaw, but show an even larger improvement at small yaw angles. In this paper, rear extensions are investigated on an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel with focus on the wake flow and on the unsteady behavior of the surface pressures near the base perimeter. To increase the effect of the extensions on the wake flow, the investigated configurations have a closed upper- and lower grille (closed-cooling) and the underbody has been smoothed with additional panels. This paper aims to analyze differences in flow characteristics on the wake of an SUV at 0° and 2.5° yaw, caused by different sets of extensions attached to the base perimeter. Extensions with several lengths are investigated with and without a kick.
Technical Paper

Visualization of EGR Influence on Diesel Combustion With Long Ignition Delay in a Heavy-duty Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2947
The effects of EGR on diesel combustion were visually examined in a single-cylinder heavy duty research engine with a low compression ratio, low swirl, a CR fuel injection system and an eight-orifice nozzle. Optical access was primarily obtained through the cylinder head. The effects of EGR were found to be significant. NOx emissions were reduced from over 500 ppm at 0% EGR to 5 ppm at 55% EGR. At higher levels of EGR (approximately 35% or more) there was a loss in efficiency. Constant fuel masses were injected. Results from the optical measurements and global emission data were compared in order to obtain a better understanding of the spray behaviour and mixing process. Optical measurements provide fundamental insights by visualizing air motion and combustion behaviour. The NOx reductions observed might be explained by reductions in oxygen concentration associated with the increases in EGR.
Technical Paper

Using Multi-Rate Filter Banks to Detect Internal Combustion Engine Knock

1997-05-01
971670
The wavelet transform is used in the analysis of the cylinder pressure trace and the ionic current trace of a knocking, single-cylinder, spark ignition engine. Using the wavelet transform offers a significant reduction of mathematical operations when compared with traditional filtering techniques based on the Fourier transform. It is shown that conventional knock analysis in terms of average energy in the time domain (AETD), corresponding to the signal's energy content, and maximum amplitude in the time domain (MATD), corresponding to the maximum amplitude of the bandpass filtered signal, can be applied to both the reconstructed filtered cylinder pressure and the wavelet coefficients. The use of the filter coefficients makes possible a significant additional reduction in calculation effort in comparison with filters based on the windowed Fourier transform.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Quantification of Flow Uniformity Measurements in a Slotted Wall Wind Tunnel

2019-04-02
2019-01-0656
The need for a more complete understanding of the flow behavior in aerodynamic wind tunnels has increased as they have become vital tools not only for vehicle development, but also for vehicle certification. One important aspect of the behavior is the empty test section flow, which in a conventional tunnel should be as uniform as possible. In order to assess the uniformity and ensure consistent behavior over time, accurate measurements need to be performed regularly. Furthermore, the uncertainties and errors of the measurements need to be minimized in order to resolve small non-uniformities. In this work, the quantification of the measurement uncertainties from the full measurement chain of the new flow uniformity measurement rig for the Volvo Cars aerodynamic wind tunnel is presented. The simulation based method used to account for flow interference of the probe mount is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Model: Further Development and Implementation for 3-D Simulation of Combustion in SI Engine

1998-10-19
982613
A Turbulent Flame Speed Closure Model is modified and implemented into the FIRE code for use in 3D computations of combustion in an SI-engine. The modifications are done to account for mixture inhomogeneity, and mixture compression through the dependency of local equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature on the chemical time scale and a global reaction time scale. The model is also subjected to further evaluation against experimental data, covering different mixture and turbulence conditions. The combustion process in a 4-valve pentroof combustion chamber is simulated and heat release rates and spatial flame distribution are evaluated against experimental data. The computations show good agreement with the experiments. The model has proven to be a robust and time effective simulation tool with good predictive ability.
Technical Paper

Transient Measurements of Discharge Coefficients of Diesel Nozzles

2000-10-16
2000-01-2788
The discharge coefficient is an important functional parameter of an injector characterising the nozzle flow, in terms of cavitation and hydraulic flip, which subsequently play a crucial role in the spray formation and development. Thus it is important to have the possibility of measuring instantaneously the value of the discharge coefficient. The method proposed is based on the measurement of force developed during the impingement of the fuel jet on a normal target. In this study the method was verified experimentally and also the variation of a diesel nozzle discharge coefficient over the entire injection time was studied. The impingement results were in good agreement, when compared with the results from mass flow measurements both at high and low injection pressures. Strong variations of the discharge coefficient during the injector needle opening and closing periods were seen.
Technical Paper

Toward an Effective Virtual Powertrain Calibration System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0007
Due to stricter emission regulations and more environmental awareness, the powertrain systems are moving toward higher fuel efficiency and lower emissions. In response to these pressing needs, new technologies have been designed and implemented by manufacturers. As a result of increasing complexity of the powertrain systems, their control and optimization become more and more challenging. Virtual powertrain calibration, also known as model-based calibration, has been introduced to transfer a part of test bench testing into a virtual environment, and hence considerably reduce time and cost of product development process while increasing the product quality. Nevertheless, virtual calibration has not yet reached its full potential in industrial applications. Volvo Penta has recently developed a virtual test cell named VIRTEC, which is used in an ongoing pilot project to meet the Stage V emission standards.
Journal Article

Time and Spatially Resolved Temperature Measurements of a Combusting Diesel Spray Impinging on a Wall

2008-06-23
2008-01-1608
The interaction between a combusting diesel spray and a wall was studied by measuring the spray flame temperature time and spatially resolved. The influence of injection sequences, injection pressure and gas conditions on the heat transfer between the combusting spray and the wall was investigated by measuring the flame temperature during the complete injection event. The flame temperature was measured by an emission based optical method and determined by comparing the relative emission intensities from the soot in the flame at two wavelength intervals. The measurements were done by employing a monochromatic and non intensified high speed camera, an array of mirrors, interference filters and a beam splitter. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature (HP/HT) spray rig at conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct injected diesel engine prior to the injection of fuel.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Cycle and Working Fluid Selection for Waste Heat Recovery in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1371
Thermodynamic power cycles have been shown to provide an excellent method for waste heat recovery (WHR) in internal combustion engines. By capturing and reusing heat that would otherwise be lost to the environment, the efficiency of engines can be increased. This study evaluates the maximum power output of different cycles used for WHR in a heavy duty Diesel engine with a focus on working fluid selection. Typically, only high temperature heat sources are evaluated for WHR in engines, whereas this study also considers the potential of WHR from the coolant. To recover the heat, four types of power cycles were evaluated: the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), transcritical Rankine cycle, trilateral flash cycle, and organic flash cycle. This paper allows for a direct comparison of these cycles by simulating all cycles using the same boundary conditions and working fluids.
Technical Paper

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

2001-05-07
2001-01-2008
The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric.
Technical Paper

The Role of Aerodynamics in the 1955 Le Mans Crash

2008-12-02
2008-01-2996
In the 1955 Le Mans race the worst crash in motor racing history occurred and this accident would change the face of motor racing for decades. After the crash numerous investigations on the disaster were performed, and fifty years after some interesting books were launched on the subject. However, a number of key questions remain unsolved; and one open area is the influence of aerodynamics on the scenario, since the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR involved in the crash was equipped with an air-brake and its influence on the accident is basically unknown. This work may be considered as a first attempt to establish CFD as a tool to aid in resolving aerodynamic aspects in motor sport accidents and in the present paper, CFD has been used to investigate the aerodynamics and estimate the drag and lift coefficients of the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR used in the Le Mans race of 1955.
Technical Paper

The Influence of PRF and Commercial Fuels with High Octane Number on the Auto-ignition Timing of an Engine Operated in HCCI Combustion Mode with Negative Valve Overlap

2004-06-08
2004-01-1967
A single-cylinder engine was operated in HCCI combustion mode with different kinds of commercial fuels. The HCCI combustion was generated by creating a negative valve overlap (early exhaust valve closing combined with late intake valve opening) thus trapping a large amount of residuals (∼ 55%). Fifteen different fuels with high octane numbers were tested six of which were primary reference fuels (PRF's) and nine were commercial fuels or reference fuels. The engine was operated at constant operational parameters (speed/load, valve timing and equivalence ratio, intake air temperature, compression ratio, etc.) changing only the fuel type while the engine was running. Changing the fuel affected the auto-ignition timing, represented by the 50% mass fraction burned location (CA50). However these changes were not consistent with the classical RON and MON numbers, which are measures of the knock resistance of the fuel. Indeed, no correlation was found between CA50 and the RON or MON numbers.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Wheel Design on the Aerodynamic Drag of Passenger Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0662
Approximately 25 % of a passenger vehicle’s aerodynamic drag comes directly or indirectly from its wheels, indicating that the rim geometry is highly relevant for increasing the vehicle’s overall energy efficiency. An extensive experimental study is presented where a parametric model of the rim design was developed, and statistical methods were employed to isolate the aerodynamic effects of certain geometric rim parameters. In addition to wind tunnel force measurements, this study employed the flowfield measurement techniques of wake surveys, wheelhouse pressure measurements, and base pressure measurements to investigate and explain the most important parameters’ effects on the flowfield. In addition, a numerical model of the vehicle with various rim geometries was developed and used to further elucidate the effects of certain geometric parameters on the flow field.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Multirow Nozzles on Diesel Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0701
In a diesel engine, the combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes. To meet the stringent emission legislations of the future, which will demand substantial reductions of NOX and particulate emissions from diesel engines, the spray and mixing processes play a major roll. Different fuel injection systems and injection strategies have been developed to achieve better performance and lower emissions from the diesel engine almost without investigating the influence of the injector nozzle orifices. A reduction in the nozzle orifice diameter is important for an increased mixing rate and formation of smaller droplets which is beneficial from emissions and fuel consumption point of view, as long as the local air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) is kept at a sufficiently lean level.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Leaner Charge and Swirl on Diesel Combustion

2002-05-06
2002-01-1633
Substantial reduction of NOX and particulate emissions from diesel engines will be required by the emission legislation in the future. In a diesel engine, the combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes. Parameters of importance are droplet size, droplet distribution, injection velocity, in-cylinder flow (convection and turbulence) and cylinder charge temperature/pressure. The mixing is controlled by convective and turbulent mixing due to in-cylinder charge motion, momentum transfer and turbulence induced by the injection process. The most important processes are known to be the turbulent macro- and micromixing. Smaller nozzle orifices are believed to increase mixing rate, due to smaller droplet size leading to faster evaporation. Dimensional analysis suggests that the turbulent mixing time, τmix, scales with orifice diameter, d.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on the Heat Transfer in an SI Engine: Thermal Boundary Layer Investigation using CARS Temperature Measurements and Heat Flux Measurements

2000-10-16
2000-01-2831
It is generally accepted that knocking combustion influences the heat transfer in SI engines. However, the effects of heat transfer on the onset of knock is still not clear due to lack of experimental data of the thermal boundary layer close to the combustion chamber wall. This paper presents measurements of the temperature in the thermal boundary layer under knocking and non-knocking conditions. The temperature was measured using dual-broadband rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of the cylinder pressure, at three different locations, and the heat flux to the wall were carried out. Optical access to the region near the combustion chamber wall was achieved by using a horseshoe-shaped combustion chamber with windows installed in the rectangular part of the chamber. This arrangement made CARS temperature measurements close to the wall possible and results are presented in the range 0.1-5 mm from the wall.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on Heat Transfer in SI Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0238
Heat transfer to the walls of the combustion chamber is increased by engine knock. In this study the influence of knock onset and knock intensity on the heat flux is investigated by examining over 10 000 individual engine cycles with a varying degree of knock. The heat transfer to the walls was estimated by measuring the combustion chamber wall temperature in an SI engine under knocking conditions. The influence of the air-fuel ratio and the orientation of the oscillating cylinder pressure-relative to the combustion chamber wall-were also investigated. It was found that knock intensities above 0.2 Mpa influenced the heat flux. At knock intensities above 0.6 Mpa, the peak heat flux was 2.5 times higher than for a non-knocking cycle. The direction of the oscillations did not affect the heat transfer.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Elliptical Nozzle Holes on Combustion and Emission Formation in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1251
A serie of experiments were carried out to compare the combustion and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine using non-circular (elliptical) and circular shaped fuel injector nozzle holes. Elliptic nozzle holes have the potential to increase air entrainment into the spray, which could lead to decreased emissions from diesel combustion. Previous work [6,7] has shown some interesting results in a passenger car diesel engine and also in a single cylinder engine with optical access. The idea is based on results from investigations of gas jets, where the air entrainment for elliptical jets was increased substantially compared to circular jets. The present series of experiments were carried out to further investigate these effects. The non-circular holes, which were made with an aspect ratio of close to 2:1, have a similar flow rate as the conventional circular holes. Two different angles of the elliptical major axis to the injector centerline were used.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Charge Air and Fuel Injection Parameters on Combustion with High Levels of EGR in a HDDI Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0914
When increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to low temperature combustion, soot emissions first start to increase (due to reductions in soot oxidation), before decreasing to almost zero (due to very low rates of soot formation). At the EGR level where soot emissions start to increase, the NOx emissions are still low, but not low enough to comply with future emission standards. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the possibilities for moving the so-called “soot bump” (increase in soot) to higher EGR levels or reducing the magnitude of the soot bump. This involved an experimental investigation of parameters affecting the combustion and thus the engine-out emissions. The parameters investigated were: charge air pressure, injection pressure, EGR temperature and post injection (with different dwell times) for a wide range of EGR rates.
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