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Technical Paper

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

2001-05-07
2001-01-2008
The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric.
Technical Paper

The Role of Aerodynamics in the 1955 Le Mans Crash

2008-12-02
2008-01-2996
In the 1955 Le Mans race the worst crash in motor racing history occurred and this accident would change the face of motor racing for decades. After the crash numerous investigations on the disaster were performed, and fifty years after some interesting books were launched on the subject. However, a number of key questions remain unsolved; and one open area is the influence of aerodynamics on the scenario, since the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR involved in the crash was equipped with an air-brake and its influence on the accident is basically unknown. This work may be considered as a first attempt to establish CFD as a tool to aid in resolving aerodynamic aspects in motor sport accidents and in the present paper, CFD has been used to investigate the aerodynamics and estimate the drag and lift coefficients of the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR used in the Le Mans race of 1955.
Technical Paper

Study of Software Integration for Transient Simulation of Future Cooling System for Heavy Truck Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-0653
The work investigates the integration between tools for analysis and simulation of cooling systems at Volvo Group Trucks Technology. At the same time it is a consequent step in evaluating GT-SUITE for the purposes of analysis and simulation of such systems. The focus is on 1D simulation tools, which are generally preferred in the context of transient simulations of engine and power train installation systems. The Cooling Analysis and Simulations group at Volvo Group Trucks Technology use a variety of 1D simulation tools for analysis of cooling performance. Volvo Power Train, on the other hand, use among others GT-SUITE for engine simulations. It is expected to improve the quality of the simulation, (i.e the accuracy of the results) and improve system integration by using one tool for both areas of simulation. This work delivers two transient models of FH 13L cooling system integrated with a predictive model of the engine and a detailed model of the main coolant circuit.
Technical Paper

Speed Limit in City Area and Improvement of Vehicle Front Design for Pedestrian Impact Protection-A Computer Simulation Study

2001-06-04
2001-06-0227
This paper presented a part of results from an ongoing project for pedestrian protection, which is carried out at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. A validated pedestrian mathematical model was used in this study to simulate vehicle-pedestrian impacts. A large number of simulations have been carried out with various parameters. The injury-related parameters concerning head, chest, pelvis and lower extremities were calculated to evaluate the effect of impact speed and vehicle front structure on the risk of pedestrian injuries. The effect of following vehicle parameters was studied: stiffness of bumper, hood edge, hood top, windscreen frame, and shape of vehicle front structures. A parameter study was conducted by modelling vehicle-pedestrian impacts with various sizes of cars, mini vans, and light trucks. This choice represents the trends of new vehicle fleet and their frequency of involvement in real world accidents.
Technical Paper

Soot Evolution in Multiple Injection Diesel Flames

2008-10-06
2008-01-2470
In order to meet future emission regulations, various new combustion concepts are being developed, several of which incorporate advanced diesel injection strategies, e.g. multiple injections, offering attractive potential benefits. In this study the effects of split injections on soot evolution in diesel flames were investigated in a series of flame experiments performed using a high pressure, high temperature (HP/HT) spray chamber and laser-induced incandescence apparatus to measure soot volume fractions. The focus was on split injections with varied dwell times preceded by a short pilot. The results, which were analyzed and compared to results from engine tests, show that net soot production can be decreased by applying an appropriate split injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Two-Stroke Free Piston Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1871
The free piston internal combustion engine used in conjunction with a linear alternator offers an interesting choice for use in hybrid vehicles. The linear motion of the pistons is directly converted to electricity by the alternator, and the result is a compact and efficient energy converter that has only one moving part. The movement of the pistons is not prescribed by a crank mechanism, but is the result of the equilibrium of forces acting on the pistons, and the engine will act like a mass-spring system. This feature is one of the most prominent advantages of the FPE (Free Piston Engine), as the lack of mechanical linkage gives means of varying the compression ratio in simple manners, without changing the hardware of the engine. By varying the compression ratio, it is also it possible to run on a multitude of different fuels and to use HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion.
Technical Paper

Simplifications Applied to Simulation of Turbulence Induced by a Side View Mirror of a Full-Scale Truck Using DES

2018-04-03
2018-01-0708
In this paper, the turbulent flow induced by a production side-view mirror assembled on a full-scale production truck is simulated using a compressible k-ω SST detached eddy simulation (DES) approach -- the improved delayed DES (IDDES). The truck configuration consists of a compartment and a trailer. Due to the large size and geometric complexity of the configuration, some simplifications are applied to the simulation. A purpose of this work is to investigate whether the simplifications are suitable to obtain the reasonable properties of the flow near the side-view mirror. Another objective is to study the aerodynamic performances of the mirror. The configuration is simplified regarding two treatments. The first treatment is to retain the key exterior components of the truck body while removing the small gaps and structures. Furthermore, the trailer is shaped in an apex-truncated square pyramid.
Technical Paper

Proactive Human Factors Engineering Analysis in Space Station Design Using the Computer Manikin Jack

2000-06-06
2000-01-2166
In this case study, a human factors analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola, a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS). The manikin software Jack® was used early in the design process before any flight hardware production. All Cupola astronaut tasks were evaluated in a virtual environment of the Cupola. Methodological aspects concerning the analysis are described, e.g. file processing, use of coordinate systems and the use of a prior task analysis. Results show that the thorough manikin analysis supported with the hierarchical task analysis results, was an important help in the design process.
Technical Paper

Prerequisites for Extensive Computer Manikin Analysis – An Example with Hierarchical Task Analysis, File Exchange Protocol and a Relational Database

2001-06-26
2001-01-2101
In this case study, a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola. Cupola is a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS) as part of a Barter Arrangement between ESA and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Manikin software was used early in the design process before the production of any flight hardware. The manikin analysis was supported by the use of hierarchical task analysis, a file exchange protocol and a relational database. This paper describes methodological aspects of the use of the supporting methods. Results show that hierarchical task analysis, a file exchange protocol and a relational database are prerequisites for successful extensive manikin analysis.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains - Factors That Impact Accuracy of CO₂ Emissions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0080
Modelling is widely used for the development of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain technologies, since it can provide accurate prediction of fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions, for a fraction of the resources required in experiments. For comparison of different technologies or powertrain parameters, the results should be accurate relative to each other, since powertrains are simulated under identical model details and simulation parameters. However, when CO₂ emissions of a vehicle model are simulated under a driving cycle, significant deviances may occur between actual tests and simulation results, compromising the integrity of simulations. Therefore, this paper investigates the effects of certain modelling and simulation parameters on CO₂ emission results, for a parallel HEV under three driving cycles (NEDC, WLTC and RTS95 to simulate real driving emissions (RDE)).
Technical Paper

Modelling of Gasoline and Ethanol Hollow-Cone Sprays Using OpenFOAM

2011-08-30
2011-01-1896
Over the past few years, an open-source code called OpenFOAM has been becoming a promising CFD tool for multi-dimensional numerical simulations of internal combustion engines. The primary goal of the present study is to assess the feasibility of the code for computations of hollow-cone sprays discharged by an outward-opening pintle-type injector by simulating the experiments performed recently by Hemdal et al., (SAE 2009-01-1496) with gasoline and ethanol sprays under the following conditions: air temperature Tair = 295 or 350 K, air pressure pair = 6 bar, fuel temperature Tfuel = 243, or 295, or 320 K, and fuel injection pressure pinj = 50, or 125, or 200 bar. To simulate the experiments, a pintle injector model and the physical properties of gasoline were implemented in OpenFOAM. The flow field calculated using the pintle injector model is more realistic than that yielded by the default unit injector model normally used in OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Modelling Gasoline Spray-wall Interaction -a Review of Current Models

2000-10-16
2000-01-2808
A literature survey was carried out to examine the advances in knowledge regarding spray impingement on surfaces over the last five years. Published experiments indicate that spray impingement is controlled by various spray parameters, surface conditions, and liquid properties. One disadvantage of the published results is that the experiments have mainly been conducted with water droplets or diesel fuel, often at atmospheric conditions. A sensitivity analysis was performed for one common impingement model. The purpose was to investigate how the model described different phenomena when different parameters were changed, including wall temperature, wall roughness and injection velocity of the spray. The model tested showed sensitivity to surface roughness, whereas changes in wall temperature only resulted in increased evaporation from the surface. The increase of injection velocity resulted in a decrease of fuel on the wall by 70%.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Spark Position Effects in a Small Pre-chamber on Ignition and Early Flame Propagation

2000-10-16
2000-01-2839
Lean gas engines have a potential for a significant reduction in both fuel consumption and emission levels. The use of a small pre-chamber with controlled stoichiometric or rich mixture composition is an effective way to deal with ignition problems in such engines. A constant volume vessel equipped with a device for generation of turbulence of known quantities is used to study the operation of a cylindrical pre-chamber of 1% of the main chamber volume. Pressure was measured in the main chamber and Schlieren images of the flame initiation and propagation in the main chamber were recorded for all set-ups. The investigation of the pre-chamber is focused on the position of the spark within the pre-chamber. Spark locations close to the orifice and close to the opposite wall as well as in the middle of the pre-chamber were tested and flame evolution and pressure history were studied.
Technical Paper

Inertia Collection Applied to Vehicle Emissions

1989-09-01
892092
The INCOLL or INertia COLLection system described in this paper, should meet the requirements for a short transient test, without using any chassis dynamometer. To prove this point not only the background of its principles are described, but also results from its application both to S I engines with and without catalytic converters and to truck diesel engines. Special interest has been devoted to the oxygen sensor and converter efficiency and their response both during warm up and under transient conditions. The simplification of the analyzing equipment and the direct interpretation of the results, have been dealt with, as well as the repeativity of the results achieved. The INCOLL test may also have a potential use as quality test at the end of the production line and as a tool for reliability development as well as research and development within the field. The cost for an INCOLL test is estimated to be around one (1) percent of a normal FTP certification procedure.
Technical Paper

Impact of Conventional and Electrified Powertrains on Fuel Economy in Various Driving Cycles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0903
Many technological developments in automobile powertrains have been implemented in order to increase efficiency and comply with emission regulations. Although most of these technologies show promising results in official fuel economy tests, their benefits in real driving conditions and real driving emissions can vary significantly, since driving profiles of many drivers are different than the official driving cycles. Therefore, it is important to assess these technologies under different driving conditions and this paper aims to offer an overall perspective, with a numerical study in simulations. The simulations are carried out on a compact passenger car model with eight powertrain configurations including: a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine, a start-stop system, a downsized engine with a turbocharger, a Miller cycle engine, cylinder deactivation, turbocharged downsized Miller engine, a parallel hybrid electric vehicle powertrain and an electric vehicle powertrain.
Technical Paper

Holistic Approach for Improved Safety Including a Proposal of New Virtual Test Conditions of Small Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0571
In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e category currently. Focus of the elaborated methodology is to define appropriate test scenarios for this vehicle category to be used within a virtual tool chain. A virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification. The derivation and development of new test conditions for SEVs are described and are the main focus of this work. As key methodology a prospective methodical analysis under consideration of future aspects like pre-crash safety systems is applied.
Technical Paper

Heavy Vehicle Wheel Housing Flows - a Parametric Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-1169
The drag from the underbody, including wheels and wheel housing, constitutes a significant amount of the total aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles. A correct simulation of the underbody boundary conditions, including rotating wheels and moving ground, has turned out to be of great importance in the minimising of the aerodynamic drag. In the current study several front wheel housing design parameters have been evaluated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Design concepts, like enclosed inner wheel housings, underbody panel and wheel housing ventilation, were evaluated by flow analysis and comparison of the drag force contribution. It was shown that changes to the wheel housing geometry had an important impact on the local flow field and force distribution. The total drag of the vehicle decreased with reduced wheel housing volume and wheel housing ventilation can reduce the aerodynamic drag significantly provided it is designed properly.
Technical Paper

Heat Release in the End-Gas Prior to Knock in Lean, Rich and Stoichiometric Mixtures With and Without EGR

2002-03-04
2002-01-0239
SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Base Wake on an SUV

2013-04-08
2013-01-0464
With the increase in fuel prices and the increasingly strict environmental legislations regarding CO₂ emissions, reduction of the total energy consumption of our society becomes more important. Passenger vehicles are partly responsible for this consumption due to their strong presence in the daily life of most people. Therefore reducing the impact of cars on the environment can assist in decreasing the overall energy consumption. Even though several fields have an impact on a passenger car's performance, this paper will focus on the aerodynamic part and more specifically, the wake behind a vehicle. By definition a car is a bluff body on which the air resistance is for the most part driven by pressure drag. This is caused by the wake these bodies create. Therefore analyzing the wake characteristics behind a vehicle is crucial if one would like to reduce drag.
Technical Paper

Effect of Semi-Active Front Axle Suspension Design on Vehicle Comfort and Road Holding for a Heavy Truck

2012-09-24
2012-01-1931
Semi-active suspension systems for ground vehicles have been the focus of research for several years as they offer improvements in vehicle comfort and handling. This kind of suspension has attracted more interest compared to active suspension systems especially due to lower cost and energy consumption. In this paper the capabilities of a semi-active front axle suspension are investigated for a commercial vehicle. A half-truck model of a 4x2 tractor and semitrailer combination is developed in Matlab/Simulink for this purpose. Also, a 2 DOF roll plane model is considered to capture the roll motion of the vehicle body mass. Employing the above-mentioned models, results from on-off and continuous variable semi-active damping systems are compared to the ones from the passive suspension system according to ride comfort and handling safety characteristics.
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