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Technical Paper

Simplifications Applied to Simulation of Turbulence Induced by a Side View Mirror of a Full-Scale Truck Using DES

In this paper, the turbulent flow induced by a production side-view mirror assembled on a full-scale production truck is simulated using a compressible k-ω SST detached eddy simulation (DES) approach -- the improved delayed DES (IDDES). The truck configuration consists of a compartment and a trailer. Due to the large size and geometric complexity of the configuration, some simplifications are applied to the simulation. A purpose of this work is to investigate whether the simplifications are suitable to obtain the reasonable properties of the flow near the side-view mirror. Another objective is to study the aerodynamic performances of the mirror. The configuration is simplified regarding two treatments. The first treatment is to retain the key exterior components of the truck body while removing the small gaps and structures. Furthermore, the trailer is shaped in an apex-truncated square pyramid.
Technical Paper

Role of Late Soot Oxidation for Low Emission Combustion in a Diffusion-controlled, High-EGR, Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Soot formation and oxidation are complex and competing processes during diesel combustion. The balance between the two processes and their history determines engine-out soot values. Besides the efforts to lower soot formation with measures to influence the flame lift-off distance for example or to use HCCI-combustion, enhancement of late soot oxidation is of equal importance for low-λ diffusion-controlled low emissions combustion with EGR. The purpose of this study is to investigate soot oxidation in a heavy duty diesel engine by statistical analysis of engine data and in-cylinder endoscopic high speed photography together with CFD simulations with a main focus on large scale in-cylinder gas motion. Results from CFD simulations using a detailed soot model were used to reveal details about the soot oxidation.
Technical Paper

Rear-End Collisions - A Study of the Influence of Backrest Properties on Head-Neck Motion using a New Dummy Neck

Neck injuries in rear-end collisions are usually caused by a swift extension-flexion motion of the neck and mostly occur at low impact velocities (typically less than 20 km/h). Although the injuries are classified as AIS 1, they often lead to permanent disability. The injury risk varies a great deal between different car models. Epidemiological studies show that the effectiveness of passenger-car head-restraints in rear-end collisions generally remains poor. Rear-end collisions were simulated on a crash-sled by means of a Hybrid III dummy with a new neck (Rear Impact Dummy-neck). Seats were chosen from production car models. Differences in head-neck kinematics and kinetics between the different seats were observed at velocity changes of 5 and 12.5 km/h. Comparisons were made with an unmodified Hybrid III. The results show that the head-neck motion is influenced by the stiffness and elasticity of the backrest as well as by the properties of the head-restraint.
Technical Paper

Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Released from Piston Crevices of S.I. Engines

This work presents a numerical method for predictions of HC oxidation in the cold turbulent wall jet emerging from the piston top land crevice in an S.I. engine, using a complex chemical reaction model. The method has been applied to an engine model geometry with the aim to predict the HC oxidation rate under engine - relevant conditions. According to the simulation a large amount of HC survives oxidation due to the long ignition delay of the wall jet emitted from the crevice. This ignition delay, in turn depends mainly on chemical composition and temperature of the gas mixture in the crevice and also on the temperature distribution in the cylinder boundary layer.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation Accounting for the Finite-Rate Elementary Chemical Reactions for Computing Diesel Combustion Process

To facilitate research and development of diesel engines, the universal numerical code for predicting diesel combustion has been favored for the past decade. In this paper, the finite-rate elementary chemical reactions, sometimes called the detailed chemical reactions, are introduced into the KIVA-3V code through the use of the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model with the KH-RT break-up, modified collision and velocity interpolation models. Outcomes were such that the predicted pressure histories have favorable agreements with the measurements of single and double injection cases in the diesel engine for use in passenger cars. Thus, it is demonstrated that the present model will be a useful tool for predicting ignition and combustion characteristics encountered in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Location of the First Auto-Ignition Sites for Two HCCI Systems in a Direct Injection Engine

To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
Technical Paper

It's in the Eye of the Beholder: Who Should be the User of Computer Manikin Tools?

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of computer manikin users' background and knowledge for the results of a computer manikin simulation. Subjects taking part in the study were either production engineers or ergonomists. A manual task that presented production and ergonomics problems was used. The task was simulated prior to the subjects' sessions, using the computer manikin software Jack. During the sessions, the animated simulation was shown to the test subject. Results show that there are differences in how production engineers and ergonomists interpret results from a manikin simulation. Depending on the user's background, certain aspects that are difficult to visualise with the computer manikin were interpreted differently, regarding e.g. detected problems and holistic perspectives.
Technical Paper

Inertia Collection Applied to Vehicle Emissions

The INCOLL or INertia COLLection system described in this paper, should meet the requirements for a short transient test, without using any chassis dynamometer. To prove this point not only the background of its principles are described, but also results from its application both to S I engines with and without catalytic converters and to truck diesel engines. Special interest has been devoted to the oxygen sensor and converter efficiency and their response both during warm up and under transient conditions. The simplification of the analyzing equipment and the direct interpretation of the results, have been dealt with, as well as the repeativity of the results achieved. The INCOLL test may also have a potential use as quality test at the end of the production line and as a tool for reliability development as well as research and development within the field. The cost for an INCOLL test is estimated to be around one (1) percent of a normal FTP certification procedure.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ultra-High Injection Pressure on Diesel Ignition and Flame under High-Boost Conditions

In this work, we conducted three-dimensional numerical simulations to investigate the effect of ultra-high injection pressure on diesel ignition and flame under high-boost and medium-load conditions. Three injection cases employed in experiments with a multi-cylinder Volvo D12 engine were applied for validation. The simulations were performed using the KIVA-3V code, with a Kelvin-Helmholz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH/RT) spray breakup model and a diesel surrogate mechanism involving 83 species and 445 reactions. A range of higher injection pressure levels were projected and the injection rates estimated for the current study. Three different rate shapes of injection were projected and investigated as well. All the projected injection events start at top dead center (TDC). Computations demonstrate that high-pressure injection strongly affects engine ignition and combustion.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Parameters on Auto-Ignition and Soot Formation in Diesel Sprays

A validation study of the numerical model of n-heptane spray combustion based on experimental constant-volume data [1] was done, by comparing auto-ignition delays for different pre - turbulence levels and initial temperatures, flame contours, and soot distributions under Diesel-like conditions. The basic novelty of the methodology developed in [2] - [3] is the implementation of the partially stirred reactor (PaSR) model accounting for detailed chemistry / turbulence interactions. It is based on the assumption that the chemical processes proceed in two successive steps: micro mixing, simulated on a sub - grid scale, is followed by the reaction act. When the all Re number RNG k-ε or LES models are employed, the micro mixing time can be consistently defined giving the combustion model a “well-closed” form incorporated into the KIVA-3V code.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computationally Efficient Progress Variable Approach for a Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model

A novel 0-D Probability Density Function (PDF) based approach for the modelling of Diesel combustion using tabulated chemistry is presented. The Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) by Pasternak et al. has been extended with a progress variable based framework allowing the use of a pre-calculated auto-ignition table. Auto-ignition is tabulated through adiabatic constant pressure reactor calculations. The tabulated chemistry based implementation has been assessed against the previously presented DI-SRM version by Pasternak et al. where chemical reactions are solved online. The chemical mechanism used in this work for both, online chemistry run and table generation, is an extended version of the scheme presented by Nawdial et al. The main fuel species are n-decane, α-methylnaphthalene and methyl-decanoate giving a size of 463 species and 7600 reactions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Brake Judder by use of Amplitude Functions

Brake judder is a forced vibration occurring in different types of vehicles. The frequency of the vibration can be as high as 500 Hz, but usually remains below 100 Hz and often as low as 10-20 Hz. The driver experiences judder as vibrations in the steering wheel, brake pedal and floor. For high frequency brake judder, the structural vibrations are accompanied by a sound. In the present paper the vibration amplitude (in terms of angular deflection, velocity or acceleration) of the caliper has been used as a quantitative measure of the vibration level. Brake Torque Variation (BTV) is the primary excitation for the vibrations. The mechanical effects generating BTV are linked not only to manufacturing tolerances but also to tribological issues. Uneven disc wear as well as Thermo-Elastic Instabilities (TEI) can lead to judder. Especially the effect of the wheel suspension on the transfer of the vibrations to the driver has to be considered.
Technical Paper

A Novel Concept for Combined Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

A novel concept of combined hydrogen production and power generation system based on the combustion of aluminum in water is explored. The energy conversion system proposed is potentially able to provide four different energy sources, such us pressurized hydrogen, high temperature steam, heat, and work at the crankshaft on demand, as well as to fully comply with the environment sustainability requirements. Once aluminum oxide layer is removed, the pure aluminum can react with water producing alumina and hydrogen while releasing a significant amount of energy. Thus, the hydrogen can be stored for further use and the steam can be employed for energy generation or work production in a supplementary power system. The process is proved to be self-sustained and to provide a remarkable amount of energy available as work or hydrogen.