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Technical Paper

The Advanced Design of a Liquid Cooling Garment Through Long-Term Research: Implications of the Test Results on Three Different Garments

The most recent goal of our research program was to identify the optimal features of each of three garments to maintain core temperature and comfort under intensive physical exertion. Four males and 2 females between the ages of 22 and 46 participated in this study. The garments evaluated were the MACS-Delphi, Russian Orlan, and NASA LCVG. Subjects were tested on different days in 2 different environmental chamber temperature/humidity conditions (24°C/H∼28%; 35°C/H∼20%). Each session consisted of stages of treadmill walking/running (250W to 700W at different stages) and rest. In general, the findings showed few consistent differences among the garments. The MACS-Delphi was better able to maintain subjects within a skin and core temperature comfort zone than was evident in the other garments as indicated by a lesser fluctuation in temperatures across physical exertion levels.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Development of a Suit Port for Planetary Surface EVA — Design Studies

This paper present a summary of the design studies for the suit port proof of concept. The Suit Port reduces the need for airlocks by docking the suits directly to a rover or habitat bulkhead. The benefits include reductions in cycle time and consumables traditionally used when transferring from a pressurized compartment to EVA and mitigation of planetary surface dust from entering into the cabin. The design focused on the development of an operational proof of concept evaluated against technical feasibility, level of confidence in design, robustness to environment and failure, and the manufacturability. A future paper will discuss the overall proof of concept and provide results from evaluation testing including gas leakage rates upon completion of the testing program.
Technical Paper

Innovative Schematic Concept Analysis for a Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem

Conceptual designs for a space suit Personal Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) were developed and assessed to determine if upgrading the system using new, emerging, or projected technologies to fulfill basic functions would result in mass, volume, or performance improvements. Technologies were identified to satisfy each of the functions of the PLSS in three environments (zero-g, Lunar, and Martian) and in three time frames (2006, 2010, and 2020). The viability of candidate technologies was evaluated using evaluation criteria such as safety, technology readiness, and reliability. System concepts (schematics) were developed for combinations of time frame and environment by assigning specific technologies to each of four key functions of the PLSS -- oxygen supply, waste removal, thermal control, and power. The PLSS concepts were evaluated using the ExtraVehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool, software created by NASA to analyze integrated system mass, volume, power and thermal loads.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Ahmed Body for Ground Vehicle Aerodynamics

External aerodynamics remains one of the major concerns in designing a new generation road vehicle. In the present study, the external aerodynamics of an Ahmed body at a scale and Reynolds number, that are representative of a car or light truck at highway speeds, is explored. An experimental model test was compared with a computational model using various back angles. In addition, the experiment allowed lift and drag to be measured at yaw angles up to ±15 degrees. Reynolds number effect on drag and lift coefficients was studied and wind averaged drag coefficients were calculated. The numerical calculations used a Reynolds-averaged, unsteady Navier-Stokes formulation. Both experimental and computational results are presented for back angles of 0-, 12.5-, and 25-degrees, then compared with each other and the data available in the literature.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Wake Boards for Drag Reduction on an Ahmed Body

Commercial heavy trucks are characterized as bluffbodies and have unsteady wake flows and high base drag. Base drag has been studied for many years as a primary target for aerodynamic drag reduction. Many aftend devices have been created for active or passive reduction of base drag. Base flaps are one type of device that have shown promise for drag reduction. They consist of 3 or 4 panels joined at their edges to form an open box structure. Although base flaps have been shown to reduce drag, they have not been adopted by the trucking industry because they are inconvenient to deploy on a commercial scale. A practical refinement to base flaps is the two-panel wake board (WB). It is a commercially viable solution, with easy deployment and significant drag reduction. This paper presents experimental data for two-panel wake boards with varying width and inset on an Ahmed body at yaw angles up to 12 degrees.
Technical Paper

Computational Simulations for the External Aerodynamics of Heavy Trucks

An objective considered in designing the new generation of heavy trucks is fuel efficiency. This can be significantly improved by reducing the overall drag force on the truck when it is in motion. With this impetus, the external aerodynamics of a heavy truck was simulated using computational fluid dynamics and the external flow was presented using computer visualization. Initially, a thorough validation study was conducted on the Ahmed body. Consequently, the model and the method were selected to be the time-dependent, three dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations that are solved using a finite volume method. The RNG k-ε model was elected for closure of the turbulent quantities. Finally, to help the estimation of the error due to two commonly practiced engineering simplifications, a parametric study was conducted. The external flow around the truck was computed with and without the tires (-6% drag error), then with or without ground plane motion (+9% drag error).
Technical Paper

Comparative Space Suit Boot Test

In applications that require space-suited crewmembers to traverse rough terrain, boot fit and mobility are of critical importance to the crewmember's overall performance capabilities. Current extravehicular activity (EVA) boot designs were developed for micro-gravity applications, and as such, incorporate only minimal mobility features. Recently three advanced space suit boot designs were evaluated at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center (NASA/JSC). The three designs included: 1) a modified Space Shuttle suit (Extravehicular Mobility Unit or EMU) boot, 2) the Modified Experiment Boot designed and fabricated by RD & PE Zvezda JSC, and 3) a boot designed and fabricated by the David Clark Company. Descriptions of each configuration and rationale for each boot design are presented.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of Drag Reduction Devices for Heavy Trucks Using Design of Experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics

Aerodynamic drag, lift, and side forces have a profound influence on fuel efficiency, vehicle speed, stability, acceleration and performance. All of these areas benefit from drag reduction and changing the lift force in favor of the operating conditions. The present study simulates the external flow field around a heavy truck with three prototype add-on drag reduction devices using a computational method. The model and the method are selected to be three dimensional and time-dependent. The Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume method. The Renormalization Group (RNG) k-ε model was elected for closure of the turbulent quantities. The run cases were chosen so that the influence of each drag reduction device could be established using a regression model from a Design of Experiments (DOEX) derived test matrix.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Characterization of a Sportscar Prototype Racecar Using Design of Experiments in a Wind Tunnel Test

Application of a formally designed experiment to wind tunnel testing of a sportscar prototype was explored at the Langley Full Scale Tunnel. A two-level fractional factorial design with center points was used to determine the effect of front ride height, rear wing angle, gurney flap height, spoiler height, and yaw angle on the front downforce, rear downforce, drag, and lift-to-drag ratio of the racecar. Regression models were created for each of the responses to provide aerodynamic prediction and optimization capabilities. Prediction models provide an “aerodynamic mapping” that can be used for effective tuning of the car at the track as well as serve as a math model for numerical lap simulations.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation of the Effect of Wind on Heavy Truck Fuel Consumption Testing

A computer simulation was developed to investigate the effect of wind on test track estimation of heavy truck fuel efficiency. Monte Carlo simulations were run for various wind conditions, both with and without gusts, and for two different vehicle aerodynamic configurations. The vehicle configurations chosen for this study are representative of typical Class 8 tractor trailers and use wind tunnel measured drag polars for performance computations. The baseline (control) case is representative of a modern streamlined tractor and conventional trailer. The comparison (test) case is the baseline case with the addition of a trailer drag reduction device (trailer skirt). The integrated drag coefficient, overall required power, total fuel consumption, and average rate of fuel consumption were calculated for a heavy truck on an oval test track to show the effect of wind on test results.