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Technical Paper

Validation of Computational Vehicle Windshield De-Icing Process

This study is a joint development project between Chrysler Corporation and CFD Research Corporation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a 3D computational flow and heat transfer model for a vehicle windshield de-icing process. The windshield clearing process is a 3D transient, multi-medium, multi-phase heat exchange phenomenon in connection with the air flow distribution in the passenger compartment. The transient windshield de-icing analysis employed conjugate heat transfer methodology and enthalpy method to simulate the velocity distribution near the windshield inside surface, and the time progression of ice-melting pattern on the windshield outside surface. The comparison between the computed results and measured data showed very reasonable agreement, which demonstrated that the developed analysis tool is capable of simulating the vehicle cold room de-icing tests.
Technical Paper

Tumble and Swirl Quantification within a Motored Four-Valve SI Engine Cylinder Based on 3-D LDV Measurements

The flow field contained within ten planes inside a cylinder of a 3.5 liter, 24-valve, V-6 engine was mapped using a three-dimensional Laser Doppler Velocimetry (3-D LDV) system. A total of 1,548 LDV measurement locations were used to construct the time history of the in-cylinder flow fields during the intake and compression strokes. The measurements began during the intake stroke at a crank angle of 60° ATDC and continued until approximately 280° ATDC. The ensemble averaged LDV measurements allowed for a quantitative analysis of the dynamic in-cylinder flow process in terms of tumble and swirl motions. Both of these quantities were calculated at every 1.8 crank degrees during the described measurement interval. Tumble calculations were performed about axes in multiple planes in both the Cartesian directions perpendicular to the plane of the piston top. Swirl calculations were also accomplished in multiple planes that lie parallel to the plane of the piston top.
Journal Article

Transient Thermal Modeling of Power Train Components

This paper discusses simplified lumped parameter thermal modeling of power train components. In particular, it discusses the tradeoff between model complexity and the ability to correlate the predicted temperatures and flow rates with measured data. The benefits and problems associated with using a three lumped mass model are explained and the value of this simpler model is promoted. The process for correlation and optimization using modern software tools is explained. Examples of models for engines and transmissions are illustrated along with their predictive abilities over typical driving cycles.
Technical Paper

The First Standard Automotive Crash Dummy

The SAE Recommended Practice J963 “Anthropomorphic Test Device for Dynamic Testing” describes a standard 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test dummy. For nearly three years the Crash Test Dummy Task Force worked with the limited data available in selecting values for the body dimensions and ranges of motion. The data for specifying the values of mass distribution were developed experimentally as was a test procedure for determining the dynamic spring rate of the thorax.
Technical Paper


TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia (test) weight is a useful concept in analyzing the total or composite fuel economy generated in thousands of tests using the carbon balance technique in EPA Federal Test Procedure and Highway Driving Cycle. TFC/IW is a measure of drive train efficiency that requires no additional complicating assumptions. It is applicable to one test or a fleet representing many tests.
Technical Paper

Suspension System Modeling and Structural Loading

The object of this paper is to present an overview of the procedure leading to the selection of suspension system pivot points, show how to resolve terrain and maneuver loads at the tire contact patch to the vehicles' structure, illustrate the modeling technique used for stress analysis of suspension system components, and illustrate a few examples of suspension system models used to aid in the solution of ride and handling problems.
Technical Paper

Stiffness Simulation Techniques and Test Correlations in Automotive Interior Cockpit Systems (IP, Door Trim and Floor Console Assembly)

An automotive cockpit module is a complex assembly, which consists of components and sub-systems. The critical systems in the cockpit module are the instrument panel (IP), the floor console, and door trim assemblies, which consist of many plastic trims. Stiffness is one of the most important parameters for the plastic trims' design, and it should be optimum to meet all the three functional requirements of safety, vibration and durability. This paper presents how the CAE application and various other techniques are used efficiently to predict the stiffness, and the strength of automotive cockpit systems, which will reduce the product development cycle time and cost. The implicit solver is used for the most of the stiffness analysis, and the explicit techniques are used in highly non-linear situations. This paper also shows the correlations of the CAE results and the physical test results, which will give more confidence in product design and reduce the cost of prototype testing.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction in Sheet Forming Simulation

Although numerical simulation techniques for sheet metal forming become increasingly maturing in recent years, prediction of springback remains a topic of current investigation. The main point of this paper is to illustrate the effectiveness of a modelling approach where static implicit schemes are used for the prediction of springback regardless whether a static implicit or dynamic explicit scheme is used in the forming simulation. The approach is demonstrated by revisiting the 2-D draw bending of NUMISHEET'93 and numerical results on two real world stampings.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

Road Noise Modelling Using Statistical Energy Analysis Method

A mathematical model was developed to evaluate design options for control of road noise transmission into the interior of a passenger car. Both air-borne and structure-borne road noise over the frequency range of 200-5000 Hz was able to be considered using the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method. Acoustic and vibration measurements conducted on a laboratory rolling road were used to represent the tire noise “source” functions. The SEA model was correlated to in car sound pressure level measurements to within 2-4 db accuracy, and showed that airborne noise dominated structure-borne noise sources above 400 Hz. The effectiveness of different noise control treatments was simulated and in some cases evaluated with tests.
Technical Paper

Reliability Estimation and Failure Prediction of Vehicle Systems and Components

For designing new products or developing new specifications, the reliability performance of systems and components experienced by the customer provides invaluable information for the engineer. This information, not only provides for the visibility of reliability requirements, but also an awareness of potential degradation of the systems and components during its life cycle. In this paper, a method is presented for predicting vehicle system and component reliability from vehicle fleet repair data. This method combines sampling stratification, computer data analysis and statistical modeling techniques into a reliability analysis procedure to provide reliability prediction. Specifically, published vehicle fleet data was used to provide the basis for predicting the vehicle system and component reliability at any mileage level.
Technical Paper

Reducing Cold-Start Emissions by Catalytic Converter Thermal Management

Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m2K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146°C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27°C.
Technical Paper

Performance of Heat-Resistant Alloys in Emission-Control Systems

An extensive program has been established to screen and evaluate heat- and corrosion-resistant alloys that may have some potential application in emission-control systems anywhere from the exhaust manifold to the tailpipe. The various phases of this program, which include tests conducted in air and controlled exhaust atmospheres at temperatures between 1300-2200°F are described. Some selected test data and the results of metallographic studies are presented to illustrate how representative alloys react to the various test conditions. The characteristics and functions of the basic emission-control devices are reviewed in light of their effect upon materials requirements.
Technical Paper

Panel Contribution Study: Results, Correlation and Optimal Bead Pattern for Powertrain Noise Reduction

To understand how the passenger compartment cavity interacts with the surrounding panels (roof, windshield, dash panel, etc) a numerical panel contribution analysis was performed using FEA and BEA techniques. An experimental panel contribution analysis was conducted by Reiter Automotive Systems. Test results showed good correlation with the simulation results. After gaining some insight into panel contributions for power train noise, an attempt was made to introduce beads in panels to reduce vibration levels. A fully trimmed body structural-acoustic FEA model was used in this analysis. A network of massless beam elements was created in the model. This full structural-acoustic FEA model was then used to determine the optimal location for the beads, using the added beams as optimization variables.
Technical Paper

OPNET J1850 Network Simulator

MIL 3's OPNET simulator was used to model Chrysler's J1850 bus. Modeled were both J1850 bus characteristics and those portions of control modules (e.g., the engine controller) which communicate on the bus. Current Chrysler control module algorithms and proposed Chrysler J1850 message formats were used to design the control module models. The control module models include all messages which are transmitted at fixed intervals over the J1850 bus. The effects of function-based messages (e.g., messages to be transmitted on a particular sensor or push-button reading) on system load were investigated by transmitting an additional message with a fixed, relatively high priority at 50 millisecond intervals.
Technical Paper

Material Modeling of Structural Foams in Finite Element Analysis Using Compressive Uniaxial and Triaxial Data

The impact response of foam is investigated using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A procedure will be described for determining the material constants used in the FEA material models. The procedure uses compressive uniaxial, force versus displacement, and triaxial, pressure versus volume-change, data. After the material model is constructed using the uniaxial and triaxial data, FEA is used to predict the results of a free-moving-mass striking rigidly backed foam. The limitations of the current material models are also addressed.
Technical Paper

Inadvertent Air Bag Sensor Testing for Off-Road Vehicles

This paper presents the development of a test procedure for evaluation of inadvertent deployment of air bags. The methodology and early development of the procedure is discussed along with additional criteria thought to be required for trucks and sport utility vehicles. Tests conducted address severe off-road use in relation to air bag sensing systems. Data is collected from accelerometers. After worst case test conditions are identified (examples include rough road, snow plowing and jerk towing events), the data is analyzed and comparisons for design decisions can be made.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Phase-Shift Measurement of the Time-Resolved UBHC Emissions

The UBHC emissions during cold starting need to be controlled in order to meet the future stringent standards. This requires a better understanding of the characteristics of the time resolved UBHC signal measured by a high frequency FID and its phasing with respect to the valve events. The computer program supplied with the instrument and currently used to compute the phase shift has many uncertainties due to the unsteady nature of engine operation during starting. A new technique is developed to measure the in-situ phase shift of the UBHC signal under the transient thermodynamic and dynamic conditions of the engine. The UBHC concentration is measured at two locations in the exhaust manifold of one cylinder in a multicylinder port injected gasoline engine. The two locations are 77 mm apart. The downstream probe is positioned opposite to a solenoid-operated injector which delivers a gaseous jet of hydrocarbon-free nitrogen upon command.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Foam: The Effect of the State of Stress

The Finite Element predictions of the physical response of foams during impact by a rigid body (such as, the Hybrid III head form) is determined by material law equations generally approximated based on the theory of elastoplasticity. However, the structural aspect of foam, its discontinuous nature, makes it difficult to apply the laws of continuum mechanics and construct constitutive equations for foam-like material. One part of the problem relates to the state of stress. In materials such as steel, the state of hydrostatic stress does not affect the stress strain behavior under uniaxial compression or tension in plastic regime. In other words, when steel is subject to hydrostatic pressures the stress strain characteristic can be predicted from a uniaxial test. However, if the stresses acting on a section of foam are triaxial, the response of a head-form may be different than predicted from uniaxial test data.
Technical Paper

Exterior Body Panels - Present Manufacturing Implementation and Future Directions and Needs

Advances in computerized solid modeling techniques allow the realistic representation of exterior body panels as solid models, at the concept stage of part design. A flow chart of the process is presented on the use of solid models to create exterior body panels. The flow chart allows a study of the process and is extended to the next generation of capabilities.