Refine Your Search




Search Results

Technical Paper

the potential of Unconventional Powerplants for Vehicle Propulsion

COMPARISON of work capacity per unit mass and volume of different energy carriers shows that liquid hydrocarbons are superior to other energy sources. Solar and nuclear powerplants as well as their use in conjunction with a steam engine are examined in this paper. Suitability of an electric drive is discussed. Using a production 2-stroke diesel engine and its development forecast, a comparison is made of spark ignition, diesel, and gas turbine engines. The status of the free-piston engine turbine combination is reviewed.
Technical Paper

the effect of Residual Stresses Induced by Strain-Peening upon Fatigue Strength

THE PURPOSE of this experiment was to determine the role of residual stresses in fatigue strength independent of other factors usually involved when residual stresses are introduced. It consisted of an investigation of the influence of residual stresses introduced by shotpeening on the fatigue strength of steel (Rockwell C hardness 48) in unidirectional bending. Residual stresses were varied by peening under various conditions of applied strain. This process introduced substantially the same amount and kind of surface cold working with residual stresses varying over a wide range of values. It was found that shotpeening of steel of this hardness is beneficial primarily because of the nature of the macro-residual-stresses introduced by the process. There is no gain attributable to “strain-hardening” for this material. An effort was made to explain the results on the basis of three failure criteria: distortion energy, maximum shear stress, and maximum stress.*
Technical Paper

some metallurgical aspects of … Pontiac V-8 Engine Pearlitic Malleable Iron Crankshaft

PEARLITIC malleable iron crankshafts are being used in the new Pontiac engine as a result of recent developments. This paper discusses the physical properties of pearlitic malleable iron such as elastic modulus, fatigue endurance, and tensile strength. According to the author, definite machining economies result from using pearlitic malleable iron crankshafts.
Technical Paper

a new look at High Compression Engines

THE automotive and petroleum industries have been concerned for many years with the mutual problem of improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. Great progress in refining technology, as well as advances in engine design in recent years, have made it desirable to take a new look at high-compression engines. This paper describes an investigation of the effect of compression ratio on engine efficiency over a range of compression ratios from 9/1 to 25/1. The results show that the thermal efficiency of the multicylinder engines used in this study peaked at a compression ratio of 17/1. The decrease in thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios is due primarily to delay in the completion of the combustion process. This paper received the 1958 Horning Memorial Award.
Technical Paper

Windage Tray Design Comparison Using Crankcase Breathing Simulation

The conflicting requirements of better fuel economy, higher performance and lower emissions from an automobile engine have brought many new challenges that require development teams to look beyond conventional test and seek answers from simulations. One of the relatively unexplored areas of development where frictional losses haven't been completely understood is the flow in the crankcase. Here computational engineering can play a significant role in analyzing flow field in a hidden and complex region where otherwise testing has serious limitations. Flow simulation in the crankcase poses significant complexity and provides an opportunity to enhance the understanding of underlying physics by using multi-physics analyses tools available commercially. In this study, air space under the piston and above the oil level in oil pan is simulated. It is known that bay-to-bay breathing and windage holes account for considerable amount of power losses in the crankcase.
Technical Paper

Washcoat Technology and Precious Metal Loading Study Targeting the California LEV MDV2 Standard

Meeting the California Medium-Duty truck emissions standards presents a significant challenge to automotive engineers due to the combination of sustained high temperature exhaust conditions, high flow rates and relatively high engine out emissions. A successful catalyst for an exhaust treatment system must be resistant to high temperature deactivation, maintain cold start performance and display high three-way conversion efficiencies under most operating conditions. This paper describes a catalyst technology and precious metal loading study targeting a California Medium-Duty truck LEV (MDV2) application. At the same time a direction is presented for optimizing toward the Federal Tier 1 standard through reduction of precious metal use. The paper identifies catalytic formulations for a twin substrate, 1.23 L medium-coupled converter. Two are used per vehicle, mounted 45 cm downstream of each manifold on a 5.7 L V8 engine.
Technical Paper


AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

Viscosity Effects on Engine Wear Under High-Temperature, High-Speed Conditions

Four multigrade engine oils, containing the same base oil plus SE additive package but VI improvers of differing shear stability, were evaluated in 80 000 km of high-speed, high-temperature vehicle service. Bearing, piston ring and valve guide wear, as well as oil consumption, oil filter plugging and engine cleanliness were all worse for the engines operated on the low-shear stability oils. The wear differences were traced to differences in high-shear-rate viscosity, while the cleanliness, filter plugging and oil consumption differences occurred because of excessive wear or polymer shear degradation. These results suggest that engine oil viscosity should be specified under high-shear-rate conditions.
Technical Paper

Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition using Full Vehicle Simulations

The concept of full vehicle simulation has been embraced by the automobile industry as it is an indispensable tool for analyzing vehicles. Vehicle loads traditionally obtained by road load data acquisition such as wheel forces are typically not invariant as they depend on the vehicle that was used for the measurement. Alternatively, virtual road load data acquisition approach has been adopted in industry to derive invariant loads. Analytical loads prior to building hardware prototypes can shorten development cycles and save costs associated with data acquisition. The approach described herein estimate realistic component load histories with sufficient accuracy and reasonable effort using full vehicle simulations. In this study, a multi-body dynamic model of the vehicle was built and simulated over digitized road using ADAMS software, and output responses were correlated to a physical vehicle that was driven on the same road.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Crash Research and Manufacturing Experience

The search for improvements in occupant protection under vehicle impact is hampered by a real lack of reliable biomechanical data. To help fill this void, General Motors has initiated joint research with independent researchers such as the School of Medicine, U. C. L. A. – in this case to study localized head and facial trauma — and has developed such unique laboratory tools as “Tramasaf,” a human-simulating headform, and “MetNet,” a pressure-sensitive metal foam. Research applied directly to product design also has culminated in developments such as the Side-Guard Beam for side impact protection.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Body Panel Thermal Buckling Resistance Analysis

This paper discusses CAE simulation methods to predict the thermal induced buckling issues when vehicle body panels are subjected to the elevated temperature in e-coat oven. Both linear buckling analysis and implicit quasi-static analysis are discussed and studied using a quarter cylinder shell as an example. The linear buckling analysis could produce quick but non-conservative buckling temperature. With considering nonlinearity, implicit quasi-static analysis could predict a relative conservative critical temperature. In addition, the permanent deformations could be obtained to judge if the panel remains visible dent due to the buckling. Finally these two approaches have been compared to thermal bucking behavior of a panel on a vehicle going through thermal cycle of e-coat oven with the excellent agreement on its initial design and issue fix design. In conclusion, the linear buckling analysis could be used for quick thermal buckling evaluation and comparison on a series of proposals.
Technical Paper

Variation in Cyclic Deformation and Strain-Controlled Fatigue Properties Using Different Curve Fitting and Measurement Techniques

The strain-life approach is now commonly used for fatigue life analysis and predictions in the ground vehicle industry. This approach requires the use of material properties obtained from strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. These properties include fatigue strength coefficient (σf′), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf′), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′), and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). To obtain the aforementioned properties for the material, raw data from stable cyclic stress-strain loops are fitted in log-log scale. These data include total, elastic and plastic strain amplitudes, stress amplitude, and fatigue life. Values of the low cycle fatigue properties (σf′, b, εf′, c) determined from the raw data depend on the method of measurement and fitting. This paper examines the merits and influence of using different measurement and fitting methods on the obtained properties.
Technical Paper

Vapor-Locking Tendencies of Fuels A Practical Approach

THIS paper describes what the authors consider to be a simplified method of determining the vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines. The study of vapor lock was undertaken after they found the Reid vapor pressure method to be inadequate. The result of their work was the development of the General Motors vapor pressure, a single number which predicts vapor-locking tendency. The authors point out the following advantages of the new method: It allows direct comparisons of vapor-lock test results of different reference fuel systems; establishes distribution curves of volatility requirements of cars for vapor-lock free operation and of vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines; is a common reference value for both petroleum and automotive engineers. Finally, it more realistically evaluates the effects of small weathering losses on vapor-locking tendency than does Rvp.
Technical Paper

Utilization of a Chassis Dynamometer for Development of Exterior Noise Control Systems

The development of systems and components for control of exterior noise has traditionally been done through an iterative process of on road testing. Frequently, road testing of vehicle modifications are delayed due to ambient environmental changes that prevent testing. Vehicle dynamometers used for powertrain development often had limited space preventing far field measurements. Recently, several European vehicle manufacturers constructed facilities that provided adequate space for simulation of the road test. This paper describes the first implementation of that technology in the U.S.. The facility is typical of those used world wide, but it is important to recognize some of the challenges to effective utilization of the technique to correlate this measurement to on road certification.
Technical Paper

U.S. Automotive Corrosion Trends Over the Past Decade

Since 1985, the Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) has conducted biannual surveys of automotive body corrosion in the Detroit area. The purpose of these surveys is to track industry wide corrosion protection improvements and to make this information available for public consumption. The survey consists of a closed car parking lot survey checking for perforations, blisters, and surface rust. This paper reports the results of the five surveys conducted to date.
Journal Article

Transmission Torque Converter Arc Spring Damper Dynamic Characteristics for Driveline Torsional Vibration Evaluation

Torsional vibration dampers are used in automatic and manual transmissions to provide passenger comfort and reduce damage to transmission & driveline components from engine torsionals. This paper will introduce a systematic method to model a torque converter (TC) arc spring damper system using Simdrive software. Arc spring design parameters, dynamometer (dyno) setup, and complete powertrain/driveline system modeling and simulation are presented. Through arc spring dynamometer setup subsystem modeling, the static and dynamic stiffness and hysteresis under different engine loads and engine speeds can be obtained. The arc spring subsystem model can be embedded into a complete powertrain/driveline model from engine to wheels. Such a model can be used to perform the torsional analysis and get the torsional response at any location within the powertrain/driveline system. The new methodology enables evaluation of the TC damper design changes to meet the requirements.
Journal Article

Transient Thermal Analysis of Diesel Fuel Systems

In this paper, a transient thermal analysis model for Diesel fuel systems is presented. The purpose of this work is to determine the fuel temperature at various locations along the system, especially inside the tank and at the returned fuel inlet to the tank. Due to the fact that the fuel level is continuously changing during any driving condition, the fuel mass inside the tank is also continuously changing. Consequently, the fuel temperature will change even under steady driving or idle conditions, therefore, this problem should be analyzed using transient thermal analysis models. Effective thermal management requires controlling the surface temperature of the fuel tank, fuel lines and the fuel temperature at the fuel return line as well as inside the tank [1, 2]. Based on the thermal analysis results, it is possible to determine the major source of heat input at several locations of the fuel system.
Technical Paper

Tonal Metrics in the Presence of Masking Noise and Correlation to Subjective Assessment

As the demand for Sound Quality improvements in vehicles continues to grow, robust analysis methods must be established to clearly represent end-user perception. For vehicle sounds which are tonal by nature, such as transmission or axle whine, the common practice of many vehicle manufacturers and suppliers is to subjectively rate the performance of a given part for acceptance on a scale of one to ten. The polar opposite of this is to measure data and use the peak of the fundamental or harmonic orders as an objective assessment. Both of these quantifications are problematic in that the former is purely subjective and the latter does not account for the presence of masking noise which has a profound impact on a driver's assessment of such noises. This paper presents the methodology and results of a study in which tonal noises in the presence of various level of masking noise were presented to a group of jurors in a controlled environment.
Technical Paper

TodayS Electronics in TodayS Vehicles

Historically, the long development time required to produce a new automobile has meant that the electronics in that vehicle might lag the state-of-the-art by several years. For traditional vehicle electronics, this was certainly an appropriate delay, ensuring through extensive testing and qualification that the quality and reliability of the electronic systems met rigorous standards. However, with the growing consumer-oriented electronics content in today's vehicles, it is becoming more difficult for the automotive manufacturers to meet consumers' expectations with older technology. Couple this with the fast-paced consumer product cycle, typically nine to eighteen and the result is increasing pressure on the vehicle manufacturers from after-market electronics suppliers, who can update their product lines as fast as the component manufacturers can produce new models.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Analysis of Front End Air Flow for a Simplified Engine Compartment

A computer code for predicting cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser has been developed. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, together with the porous flow model for the radiator and the condenser, were solved to simulate front end air flow and the engine compartment flow simultaneously. These transport equations were discretized based on a finite-volume method in a transformed domain. The computational results for a simplified engine compartment showed overall flow information, such as the cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser, the effects of an air dam, and the effects of fresh air vents near the top of the radiator and the condenser. Comparison of the available experimental data with the analysis showed excellent prediction of the cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser.