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Technical Paper

Target Volume Based Shift Controls with High Flow PWM Solenoids

2010-04-12
2010-01-0369
The Chrysler Ultradrive four-speed transaxle 41TE was the first production transmission to pioneer fully adaptive direct clutch-to-clutch electronic controls without overrunning clutches. "Single stage" high flow PWM solenoids have been used for transmission control since 1989 and still being used in the later-developed 545RFE and 62TE transmissions. The proposed target volume-based shift control method allows the usage of flow-based control device such as PWM solenoids to implement torque-based control strategy. Vehicle test results with this new method have shown excellent shift quality and improved system consistency.
Journal Article

Shudder Durability of a Wet Launch Clutch Part II - Durability Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-0330
Under the initiative of the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR§) Transmission Working Group, a collaborative effort was made with LuK USA LLC to study the influence of the friction interface parameters on the shudder durability of a wet launch clutch. Clutch configurations with different combinations of four friction materials (A, B, C and D), three groove patterns (waffle, radial and waffle-parallel) and two separator plate conditions (nitrided and non-nitrided) were considered. Durability testing consisted of a test profile, with 110 kJ energy per test cycle, developed earlier in this project. Materials A, B and C with nitrided separator plates reached the end of test criteria for the torque gradient and showed shudder. Materials B and C were more wear resistant as compared to materials A and D. The loss of friction coefficient (μ) was lower for materials B, C and D as compared to material A.
Technical Paper

Shudder Durability of a Wet Launch Clutch Part I – Thermal Study and Development of Durability Test Profile

2009-04-20
2009-01-0329
Under the initiative of the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR§) Transmission Working Group, a collaborative effort was made with LuK USA LLC to study the influence of the friction interface parameters on the shudder durability of a wet launch clutch. A test bench was designed. Clutch configurations with different combinations of four friction materials (A, B, C and D), three groove patterns (waffle, radial and waffle–parallel) and two separator plate conditions (nitrided and non–nitrided) were considered. Considerable improvement in performance was seen by changing from CVT fluid* to DCT fluid*. A thermal analysis based on thermal model predictions and measurement correlations was conducted. Comparisons of clutch configurations with four and five friction plates were done. The waffle and radial groove pattern showed better heat transfer than the waffle–parallel groove pattern.
Journal Article

Microstructural Effects on Residual Stress, Retained Austenite, and Case Depth of Carburized Automotive Steels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1422
SAE 8620 and other steels are typically used in the carburized condition for powertrain applications in the automotive industry, i.e., differential ring gears, camshafts, and transmission gears. Although current recommended carburizing practice involves normalizing the steel prior to carburizing, elimination of this normalizing treatment could lead to significant cost reductions. This research examines whether the normalizing process prior to carburizing could be eliminated without negatively affecting part performance. This study focused on the effects of the initial microstructure on the residual stress, retained austenite, and effective case depths of carburized SAE 8620 and PS-18 steels.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0410
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum for Automotive Closure Panel Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0145
Friction stir welding (FSW) shows advantages for joining lightweight alloys for automotive applications. In this research, the feasibility of friction stir welding aluminum for an automotive component application was studied. The objective of this research was to improve the Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) technique used to weld an aluminum closure panel (CP). The spot welds were made using the newly designed swing-FSSW technique. In a previous study (unpublished), the panel was welded from the thin to thick side using both an 8 mm and a 10 mm diameter tool. The 10 mm tool passed various fatigue tests; however, the target was to improve performance of the 8 mm tool, especially to increase the number of cycle before the first crack appearance during fatigue testing. In this study fatigue tests and static strength was recorded for weld specimens that were welded from thick-to-thin with an 8 mm diameter tool.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of Transmission Torque Utilizing the Lever Analogy

2009-04-20
2009-01-1137
This paper presents methods for analyzing and visualizing the relationship between input torque, clutch torque, output torque and input acceleration during the inertia phase of a shift. The methods presented are an expansion of the lever analogy [1]. The methods are useful for understanding how geartrain inertia affects control, both its magnitude and distribution. Clutch energy and shift speeds are also easy to calculate and understand using the tools presented. Lastly the methods show why the optimum control strategies for various transmission configurations (such as DCT's, planetary transmissions, etc.) are different in the inertia phase.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Transmission Systems using Physical Model Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0898
Physical modeling has been used by the industry to improve development time and produce a quality product. In this paper, we will describe two methods used in system control to take advantage of the physical model. One method describes a complete transmission physical model with a full system control utilizing co-simulation techniques. Data will be presented, and comparison to vehicle data will be conducted and verified. The second method will illustrate how to utilize the physical model to improve system design and modification. In this method, vehicle data will be used as inputs to the model, the model output will be verified against vehicle output data. The two methods are excellent tools for the Design For Six Sigma process (DFSS design).
Technical Paper

Application of the Glinka's ESED Criterion in Optimization Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-0912
In order to take into account the local material non-linear elastic-plastic effects generated by notches, Glinka proposed the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) Criterion which has been widely accepted and used in fatigue theory and calculation for the last few decades. In this paper, Glinka's criterion is applied to structural optimization design for elastic-plastic correction to consider material non-linear elastic-plastic effects. The equivalent (fictitious) stress was derived from Glinka's Criterion equation for the commonly used Ramberg-Osgood and bi-linear stress and strain relationships. This equivalent stress can be used as the stress boundary constraint threshold in structural optimization design to control the elastic-plastic stress or strain in nonlinear optimization.
Technical Paper

Application of Tuned Mass Damper to Address Discrete Excitation Away From Primary Resonance Frequency of a Structure

2009-05-19
2009-01-2125
Tuned mass dampers (TMDs) or vibration absorbers are widely used in the industry to address various NVH issues, wherein, tactile-vibration or noise mitigation is desired. TMDs can be classified into two categories, namely, tuned-to-resonance and tuned-to-discrete-excitation. An overwhelming majority of TMD applications found in the industry belong to the tuned-to-resonance category, so much of information is available on design considerations of such dampers; however, little is published regarding design considerations of dampers tuned-to-discrete-excitation. During this study, a problem was solved that occurred at a discrete excitation frequency away from the primary resonance frequency of a steering column-wheel assembly. A solution was developed in multiple stages. First the effects of various factors such as mass and damping were analyzed by using a closed-form solution.
Technical Paper

Adaptive nth Order Lookup Table used in Transmission Double Swap Shift Control

2008-04-14
2008-01-0538
The new Chrysler six-speed transaxle makes use of an underdrive assembly to extend a four-speed automatic transmission to six-speed. It is achieved by introducing double-swap shifts. During double-swap shift, learning the initial clutch torque capacity of the underdrive assembly's subsystem has a direct impact on the shift quality. A new method is proposed to compute and learn the initial clutch torque capacity of the releasing element. In this paper, we will outline a new mathematical method to compute and learn the accurate starting point of the clutch torque capacity for double swap shift control. The performance of the shift is demonstrated and the importance of the adaptation to shift quality is highlighted. An nth order lookup table is presented; this table contains n rows and m columns. Every row defines a relationship between the dependent variable such as actuator duty cycle and one independent variable such as transmission oil temperature, input torque or battery voltage.
Technical Paper

A Method for Obtaining Optimum Fuel Economy Performance using Transient Combustion Measurements

2009-04-20
2009-01-0243
An experiment was conducted testing a powertrain package consisting of a four cylinder four valve engine coupled to a four speed automatic transmission in a dynamometer test cell. Cylinder pressure transducers, an encoder, and other instrumentation were used to measure transient combustion events. The transient cycle chosen for testing was a Cold 80 of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) that produces a standardized fuel economy value. After analyzing the combustion events, a determination was made between the spark advance delivered and a revised spark advance for optimum combustion efficiency. Based upon the relationship between spark advance and fuel consumption, a prediction for the improved fuel consumption was made. The testing was then repeated to evaluate the revised spark advance and the fuel economy benefits in comparison to the predicted values.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

2008-04-14
2008-01-1205
A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
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