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Technical Paper

Procedure for the Characterization of Friction in Automobile Power Steering Systems

In developing a nonlinear steering system model for vehicle simulation, it was determined that proper inclusion of system friction is necessary to correctly predict steering wheel torque response in on-center driving using simulation models. A method to characterize the inherent friction behavior for a given steering gear has been developed and performed on two types of power steering gears: a recirculating ball gear and a rack-and-pinion gear. During this research it was discovered that levels of static and dynamic friction can differ widely for these two types. Therefore this characterization procedure provides a method to ascertain both static and dynamic friction levels. The results from these tests show that friction levels can depend on steering gear input shaft position, steering gear input angular velocity and steering gear loading conditions.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Pulse Steer Method for Determining Automobile Handling Qualities

The use of pulse steering tests for assessment of handling qualities was investigated using a simulation of a comprehensive, nonlinear four wheel model of an automobile. Evaluations were conducted using frequency response functions of yaw rate and lateral acceleration obtained by FFT processing of the simulated response. In addition, as suggested by the work of Mimuro et al [1], four parameters (steady state yaw rate gain, yaw rate natural frequency and damping ratio, and lateral acceleration phase lag at 1 Hz) that characterize these response functions were also obtained by curve fitting techniques. The effects on accuracy of the response functions and the four parameters of variations in pulse shape, duration, and magnitude were investigated. Results from the simulated pulse steer test were compared with those from simulated swept sine steering tests.